Abbott Nullius of New Norcia, Bishop Titular of Dorylaeum
, Administrator Apostolic of the Kimberley Vicariate in North
In 1098, with the Crusade in Sicily (1060-91) long ended, he takes stock of the recovery of Huesca by Aragon (1096) and the victories in the East at Nicaea and Dorylaeum
(1097) and conceptualizes the Crusades in broad terms as a Christian movement of reconquest and restoration of the lost lands of Christendom on two fronts: in the eastern Mediterranean against "the Turks in Asia" and in the western Mediterranean against "the Moors in Europe.
The conquest of Jerusalem, preceded by resounding victories over the Turks at Dorylaeum
in Asia Minor and at Antioch in Syria, and followed by the defeat of the Egyptian Fatimids at Ascalon, set the stage for the foundation of the Christian kingdom of Jerusalem, the most important portion of the crusader states thereafter known informally to the Franks as Outremer.
He appeared to confuse the disaster which overtook a rabble led by the colourful Peter the Hermit with the facts of the battle of Dorylaeum
, where Count Bohemund fought a planned and successful action against Sultan Kilij Arslan who commanded significantly greater forces.
It has been proposed that this may have been in the region of Dorylaeum
, the modern Eskisehir, in north Turkey.
During filming, some historical blanks were filled in for the first time, including crucial incidents during the battles at Antioch, Dorylaeum
and Hattin, and evidence was uncovered on the use of carrier pigeons and new archery techniques.
Compare, for example, the account of the Battle of Dorylaeum
in Chapter 7 of Bohemond with the description of the same events in Chapter 3 of Knight.
Hagenmeyer suggests that they are (1) The battle of Dorylaeum
(July 1097); (2) The battle of Heraclea (September 1097); (3) The battle at the Iron Bridge on the banks of the Orontes (October 1097); (4) The battle against the Turks from the castle of Harnec (November 1097); (5) The battle against a Muslim force seeking to relieve Antioch (December 1097).
But the method of composition from such sources is far more complex than this assertion suggests, and Murrin demonstrates in rich detail how Tasso transposes elements from historical battles such as Dorylaeum
and the siege of Antioch to represent military activity around Jerusalem.
One of France's incidental achievements is to clarify the strategic reasons for the route of the crusaders between Dorylaeum
and Antioch by way of Armenia, which has hitherto been rather unsatisfactorily explained by an allusion to the difficulties, military and physical, in crossing the terrain along the direct route.
Principal battles: siege of Nicaea (Iznik) (1097); Dorylaeum
(Eskisehir) (1097); sieges of Antioch (Antakya) (1097-1098); the Orontes (Asi) (1098).
The Crusaders were certainly close to disaster at the battle of Dorylaeum
(June 1097) when they faced the forces of the Seljuk, Kilij Arslan, while the Egyptians put up fierce resistance to the attack on Jerusalem and thereafter continued to exert pressure on the Franks until the murder of the vizier al-Afdal in 1121.