Samuel Johnson

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Johnson, Samuel,

1709–84, English author, b. Lichfield. The leading literary scholar and critic of his time, Johnson helped to shape and define the Augustan Age. He was equally celebrated for his brilliant and witty conversation. His rather gross appearance and manners were viewed tolerantly, if not with a certain admiration.

Early Life and Works

The son of a bookseller, Johnson excelled at school in spite of illness (he suffered the effects of scrofula throughout his life) and poverty. He entered Oxford in 1728 but was forced to leave after a year for lack of funds. He sustained himself as a bookseller and schoolmaster for the next six years, during which he continued his wide reading and published some translations. In 1735 he married Elizabeth Porter, a widow 20 years his senior, and remained devoted to her until her death in 1752.

Johnson settled in London in 1737 and began his literary career in earnest. At first he wrote primarily for Edward Cave's Gentleman's Magazine—poetry and prose on subjects literary and political. His poem "London," published anonymously in 1738, was praised by Pope and won Johnson recognition in literary circles. His Life of Savage (1744) is a bitter portrait of corruption in London and the miseries endured by writers. Also of note are his long poem The Vanity of Human Wishes (1749) and his essays in the periodical The Rambler (1750–52).

Later Life and Works

Johnson's first work of lasting importance, and the one that permanently established his reputation in his own time, was his Dictionary of the English Language (1755), the first comprehensive lexicographical work on English ever undertaken. Rasselas, a moral romance, appeared in 1759, and The Idler, a collection of his essays, in 1761. Although Johnson enjoyed great literary acclaim, he remained close to poverty until a government pension was granted to him in 1762. The following year was marked by his meeting with James BoswellBoswell, James,
1740–95, Scottish author, b. Edinburgh; son of a distinguished judge. At his father's insistence the young Boswell reluctantly studied law. Admitted to the bar in 1766, he practiced throughout his life, but his true interest was in a literary career and in
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, whose famous biography presents Johnson in exhaustive and fascinating detail, often recreating his conversations verbatim.

In 1764 Johnson and Joshua ReynoldsReynolds, Sir Joshua,
1723–92, English portrait painter, b. Devonshire. Long considered historically the most important of England's painters, by his learned example he raised the artist to a position of respect in England.
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 founded "The Club" (known later as The Literary Club). Its membership included Oliver Goldsmith, Edmund Burke, David Garrick, and Boswell. The brilliance of this intellectual elite was, reportedly, dazzling, and Dr. Johnson (he had received a degree in 1764) was its leading light. His witty remarks are remembered to this day. He was a master not only of the aphorism—e.g., his definition of angling as "a stick and a string, with a worm on one end and a fool on the other"—but also of the quick, unexpected retort, as when, while listening with displeasure to a violinist, he was told that the feat being performed was very difficult: "Difficult," replied Johnson, "I wish it had been impossible!"

In 1765 Johnson met Henry and Hester ThraleThrale, Hester Lynch,
later Mrs. Piozzi
, 1741–1821, Englishwoman, noted for her intimate friendship with Samuel Johnson. Daughter of John Salusbury, she married (1763) Henry Thrale, a wealthy brewer, whose home at Streatham became a gathering place for writers
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, whose friendship and hospitality he enjoyed until Thrale's death and Mrs. Thrale's remarriage. In that same year Johnson's long-heralded edition of Shakespeare appeared. Its editorial principles served as a model for future editions, and its preface and critical notes are still highly valued. In the 1770s Johnson wrote a series of Tory pamphlets. His political conservatism was based upon a profound skepticism as to the perfectibility of human nature. Although personally generous and compassionate, he held that a strict social order is necessary to save humanity from itself.

In 1773 he toured the Hebrides with Boswell and published his account of the tour in 1775. Johnson's Lives of the Poets (1779–1781), his last major work, comprises ten small volumes of acute criticism, characterized, as is all of Johnson's work, by both classical values and sensitive perception. Dr. Johnson, as he is universally known, was England's first full-dress man of letters, and his mind and personality helped to create the traditions that have guided English taste and criticism.

Bibliography

Besides the classic biography by Boswell, see biographies by Sir John Hawkins (1787; ed. by B. Davis, 1961; ed. by O. M. Brack, Jr., 2009), J. W. Krutch (1944), J. L. Clifford (1955), W. J. Bate (1977), D. Greene (upd. ed. 1989), R. DeMaria, Jr. (1993), P. Martin (2008), J. Meyers (2008), and D. Nokes (2009); critical studies by W. J. Bate (1955), R. B. Schwartz (1971), P. Quennell (1973), J. T. Boulton, ed. (1978), P. Fussell (1986), N. Hudson (1988), D. Greene (2d ed., 1990), and G. S. Gross (1992); H. Hitchings, Defining the World (2005); R. DeMaria, Jr., and G. J. Kolb, ed., Johnson on the English Language (2005); J. L. Clifford, Johnsonian Studies, 1887–1950 (1951; supplement, 1962); J. L. Clifford and D. J. Greene, A Survey and Bibliography of Critical Studies (1970); D. Greene and J. A. Vance, Bibliography of Johnsonian Studies, 1970–1985 (1987); J. Lynch, Bibliography of Johnsonian Studies, 1986–1998 (2000).


Johnson, Samuel,

1696–1772, American clergyman, educator, and philosopher, b. Guilford, Conn., grad. Collegiate School (now Yale), 1714; father of William Samuel JohnsonJohnson, William Samuel,
1727–1819, American political leader and president of Columbia College (1787–1800), b. Stratford, Conn. A lawyer in Connecticut, he soon became a leading figure in the colony, serving as a member of the lower house and in the governor's
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. He became a Congregationalist minister, but in 1722 joined the Church of England. In 1724 he opened the first Anglican church in Connecticut at Stratford, remaining its minister until 1754, when he became the first president of an Anglican institution, King's College (now Columbia), in New York City. He resigned in 1763 to return to Stratford. A friend and correspondent of the English philosopher George BerkeleyBerkeley, George
, 1685–1753, Anglo-Irish philosopher and clergyman, b. Co. Kilkenny, Ireland. Educated at Trinity College, Dublin, he became a scholar and later a fellow there. Most of Berkeley's important work in philosophy was done in his younger years.
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, Johnson became the principal exponent in America of Berkeleian idealism. His chief work was Ethica (1746), republished in an enlarged edition by Benjamin Franklin as Elementa Philosophica (1752).

Bibliography

See H. and C. Schneider, ed., Samuel Johnson … His Career and His Writings (4 vol., 1929, repr. 1972); B. Redford, ed., The Letters of Samuel Johnson (2 vol., 1994); biography by E. L. Pennington (1938); study by J. J. Ellis (1973).

Johnson, Samuel

 

Born Sept. 18, 1709, in Lichfield; died Dec. 13, 1784, in London. English critic, lexicographer, essayist, and poet.

In his philosophical novella Rasselas (1759; Russian translation, 1795), Johnson explores the dichotomy between the pursuit of happiness and the possibility of its actual attainment. His Dictionary of the English Language (1755) was a valuable addition to linguistic studies of the period. His foreword to an edition of Shakespeare (1765) and his book Lives of the English Poets (1779-81) were important contributions to the development of English literary criticism. His friend J. Boswell colorfully depicted Johnson in The Life of Samuel Johnson (1792).

WORKS

The Works, vols. 1-12. London, 1801.
Works, vols. 1-16. New York, 1903.
A Dictionary of the English Language, new edition. London, 1883. Lives of the English Poets, vols. 1-2. London-Toronto-New York [1925].

REFERENCES

Istoriia angliiskoi literdtury, vol. 1, issue 2. Moscow-Leningrad, 1945.
Boswell, J. The Life of Samuel Johnson, vols. 1-3. London, 1938.
Bate, W. J. Achievement of SamuelJohnson. New York, 1955.
Courtney, W. P. A Bibliography of Samuel Johnson. Oxford, 1925.

Johnson, Samuel

(1709–1784) literary scholar, creator of first comprehensive lexicographical work of English. [Br. Hist.: EB, V: 591]

Johnson, Samuel

(1822–82) Protestant religious leader, author; born in Salem, Mass. A physician's son, he graduated from Harvard and Harvard Divinity School, and in collaboration with a friend, he published a hymnal in 1848. Initially a Unitarian, he became minister of the Free Church in Lynn, Mass. He opposed slavery, was a mystic and poet, and in the 1870s he published a series of scholarly studies of Oriental religions.
References in periodicals archive ?
Ethan was taken to hospital by his parents the day after Dr Johnson saw him and his condition was diagnosed.
Dr Johnson was Provost and Vice-President for Academic Affairs at Johns Hopkins University and Dean of the Pratt School of Engineering at Duke University prior to serving as Undersecretary at the Department of Energy.
Increasing male age has also been linked to a number of medical complications, such as miscarriage and higher rates of autism and Down's Syndrome, said Dr Johnson.
According to Dr Johnson the best cubicle bedding is sand: "It makes a poor stall forgivable, it makes it easier for a cow to get up.
Actors Russell Barr and Ian Redford, who take the roles of Boswell and Dr Johnson, have written the adaptation along with Max Stafford-Clark, one of the country's leading theatre directors.
Dr Johnson said: "One important consideration of the whole process is that whatever new compound is found to be active against the malaria parasite, it needs to be cheap and affordable so that it can be widely used in areas such as Africa and Thailand.
Combined with responsive mechanical control systems of external, interstitial and internal radiation such as louvres and brise-soleil, such transparent skins will give the transition between inside and out astonishing properties that we can imagine only as dimly as Dr Johnson could have envisaged the Crystal Palace.
Dr Johnson added: "Getting the treatment is one of the worst mistakes I have ever made.
Reportedly in good form following a minor setback, Dr Johnson will be reunited with Christy Roche in this listed event over a mile and six furlongs.
Dr Johnson was previously the CEO of PanGenetics, which sold its anti-NGF antibody, PG 110, to Abbott Laboratories in November 2009.
Ethan's parents Graeme Wake and Heather Hastie insist he had a range of tell-tale symptoms which should have prompted Dr Johnson to arrange an emergency referral.