conscription

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conscription,

compulsory enrollment of personnel for service in the armed forces. Obligatory service in the armed forces has existed since ancient times in many cultures, including the samuraisamurai
, knights of feudal Japan, retainers of the daimyo. This aristocratic warrior class arose during the 12th-century wars between the Taira and Minamoto clans and was consolidated in the Tokugawa period.
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 in Japan, warriors in the Aztec Empire, citizen militiamen in ancient Greece and Rome, and aristocrats and their peasants or yeomen during the Middle Ages in Europe. In England, compulsory military service was employed on the local level in the Anglo-Saxon fyrd as early as the 9th cent. In the 16th cent. MachiavelliMachiavelli, Niccolò
, 1469–1527, Italian author and statesman, one of the outstanding figures of the Renaissance, b. Florence. Life

A member of the impoverished branch of a distinguished family, he entered (1498) the political service of the
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 argued that every able-bodied man in a nation was a potential soldier and could by means of conscription be required to serve in the armed forces. Conscription in the modern sense of the term dates from 1793, when the Convention of the French Republic raised an army of 300,000 men from the provinces. A few years later, conscription enabled Napoleon INapoleon I
, 1769–1821, emperor of the French, b. Ajaccio, Corsica, known as "the Little Corporal." Early Life

The son of Carlo and Letizia Bonaparte (or Buonaparte; see under Bonaparte, family), young Napoleon was sent (1779) to French military schools at
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 to build his tremendous fighting forces. Following Napoleon's example, Muhammad Ali of Egypt raised a powerful army in the 1830s. Compulsory peacetime recruitment was introduced (1811–12) by Prussia. Mass armies, raised at little cost by conscription, completely changed the scale of battle by the time of the Napoleonic Wars. The institution of conscription, which was increasingly justified by statesmen on grounds of national defense and economic stimulation, spread to other European nations and Japan in the 19th cent. At the outbreak of World War I, Great Britain adopted conscription and used it again in World War II; it was abolished in 1962. Though little used in the United States prior to the Civil War, conscription was used by both sides in that war and in most large-scale U.S. wars since, often with great controversy. Most of the important military powers of the 20th cent. have used conscription to raise their armed forces. China, because of its large population, has a policy of selective conscription. Impressmentimpressment,
forcible enrollment of recruits for military duty. Before the establishment of conscription, many countries supplemented their militia and mercenary troops by impressment.
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 is the forcible mustering of recruits. It lacks the scope and bureaucratic form of conscription. Many countries throughout the world, such as Israel, have mandatory military service; a few allow for alternate civilian service or release for conscientious objectorsconscientious objector,
person who, on the grounds of conscience, resists the authority of the state to compel military service. Such resistance, emerging in time of war, may be based on membership in a pacifistic religious sect, such as the Society of Friends (Quakers), the
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. See also selective serviceselective service,
in U.S. history, term for conscription.

Conscription was established (1863) in the U.S. Civil War, but proved unpopular (see draft riots). The law authorized release from service to anyone who furnished a substitute and, at first, to those who paid $300.
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.

conscription

see MILITARY-CIVILIAN RATIO.

Conscription

 

a method of troop recruitment based on universal military service. This system was in force in France in the late 18th century and the 19th.

During the French Revolution the Convention decreed in August 1793 the compulsory mass levy into the army of all Frenchmen between the ages of 18 and 40, the first places to be filled by bachelors and childless men between the ages of 18 and 25. In 1798 a universal six-year military obligation became the law in France under the name of conscription. Originally military service was considered an inescapable personal responsibility, and no one could take anyone else’s place. But by 1800 provisions were made to make the system less strict so that replacements could serve for the conscripts and exemptions could be bought. Military service thus became obligatory but not personal. Conscription was in effect in France until 1872 and in Russia (only for residents of Poland) from 1815 to 1874. In the second half of the 19th century conscription was replaced by universal military service.

V. V. GRADOSEL’SKII

References in periodicals archive ?
The swiftness with which the government reacted to draft card burning radicalized many Catholic activists and broadened support for nonviolent resistance.
46) In fact, as Professor Ely has pointed out: "[B]urning a draft card to express opposition to the draft is an undifferentiated whole, 100% action and 100% expression.
Both expressive draft card burning and expressive camping implicate the First Amendment under this test: Since it is analytically impossible to distinguish their expressive and nonexpressive aspects, one cannot isolate a wholly nonexpressive activity that draws the law's application.
3) Thus it is one thing to invoke the government's interest in keeping track of those eligible for the draft as evidence that a prohibition against draft card destruction is not aimed at antiwar protests; it is quite another to argue that administrative efficiency is weighty enough to allow the government to punish what it considers to be disloyal speech.
We make these values available through our Draft Card Cheat Sheets that are tailored to individual leagues' scoring systems and rosters.
Although manic episodes of teenagers are common rites of passage everywhere, the mania of an American teenager with a draft card was a peculiar drama in one of the nation's meaner fits of recalibration.
The result will be that any government interest--including keeping people from sleeping in parks, preventing the destruction of draft cards, and so forth--will be a "compelling" interest, and the compelling interest test will be analytically useless.
The Korean War was in full swing and no employer was willing to take a chance on him because he had received a 1-A draft card.
I imagine I'm not the only guy who removed a "hunter ed" card from his wallet to make room for a draft card.
Maureen Fiedler broke up the meeting with: "When I was in college during Vietnam, I really felt discriminated against because I did not have a draft card to burn like my male friends had?
One of Vann's war-damaged sons dropped half his draft card into his father's grave and then tried to give the other half to President Nixon in the Oval Office.