conscription

(redirected from Draft law)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Legal.

conscription,

compulsory enrollment of personnel for service in the armed forces. Obligatory service in the armed forces has existed since ancient times in many cultures, including the samuraisamurai
, knights of feudal Japan, retainers of the daimyo. This aristocratic warrior class arose during the 12th-century wars between the Taira and Minamoto clans and was consolidated in the Tokugawa period.
..... Click the link for more information.
 in Japan, warriors in the Aztec Empire, citizen militiamen in ancient Greece and Rome, and aristocrats and their peasants or yeomen during the Middle Ages in Europe. In England, compulsory military service was employed on the local level in the Anglo-Saxon fyrd as early as the 9th cent. In the 16th cent. MachiavelliMachiavelli, Niccolò
, 1469–1527, Italian author and statesman, one of the outstanding figures of the Renaissance, b. Florence. Life

A member of the impoverished branch of a distinguished family, he entered (1498) the political service of the
..... Click the link for more information.
 argued that every able-bodied man in a nation was a potential soldier and could by means of conscription be required to serve in the armed forces. Conscription in the modern sense of the term dates from 1793, when the Convention of the French Republic raised an army of 300,000 men from the provinces. A few years later, conscription enabled Napoleon INapoleon I
, 1769–1821, emperor of the French, b. Ajaccio, Corsica, known as "the Little Corporal." Early Life

The son of Carlo and Letizia Bonaparte (or Buonaparte; see under Bonaparte, family), young Napoleon was sent (1779) to French military schools at
..... Click the link for more information.
 to build his tremendous fighting forces. Following Napoleon's example, Muhammad Ali of Egypt raised a powerful army in the 1830s. Compulsory peacetime recruitment was introduced (1811–12) by Prussia. Mass armies, raised at little cost by conscription, completely changed the scale of battle by the time of the Napoleonic Wars. The institution of conscription, which was increasingly justified by statesmen on grounds of national defense and economic stimulation, spread to other European nations and Japan in the 19th cent. At the outbreak of World War I, Great Britain adopted conscription and used it again in World War II; it was abolished in 1962. Though little used in the United States prior to the Civil War, conscription was used by both sides in that war and in most large-scale U.S. wars since, often with great controversy. Most of the important military powers of the 20th cent. have used conscription to raise their armed forces. China, because of its large population, has a policy of selective conscription. Impressmentimpressment,
forcible enrollment of recruits for military duty. Before the establishment of conscription, many countries supplemented their militia and mercenary troops by impressment.
..... Click the link for more information.
 is the forcible mustering of recruits. It lacks the scope and bureaucratic form of conscription. Many countries throughout the world, such as Israel, have mandatory military service; a few allow for alternate civilian service or release for conscientious objectorsconscientious objector,
person who, on the grounds of conscience, resists the authority of the state to compel military service. Such resistance, emerging in time of war, may be based on membership in a pacifistic religious sect, such as the Society of Friends (Quakers), the
..... Click the link for more information.
. See also selective serviceselective service,
in U.S. history, term for conscription.

Conscription was established (1863) in the U.S. Civil War, but proved unpopular (see draft riots). The law authorized release from service to anyone who furnished a substitute and, at first, to those who paid $300.
..... Click the link for more information.
.

conscription

see MILITARY-CIVILIAN RATIO.

Conscription

 

a method of troop recruitment based on universal military service. This system was in force in France in the late 18th century and the 19th.

During the French Revolution the Convention decreed in August 1793 the compulsory mass levy into the army of all Frenchmen between the ages of 18 and 40, the first places to be filled by bachelors and childless men between the ages of 18 and 25. In 1798 a universal six-year military obligation became the law in France under the name of conscription. Originally military service was considered an inescapable personal responsibility, and no one could take anyone else’s place. But by 1800 provisions were made to make the system less strict so that replacements could serve for the conscripts and exemptions could be bought. Military service thus became obligatory but not personal. Conscription was in effect in France until 1872 and in Russia (only for residents of Poland) from 1815 to 1874. In the second half of the 19th century conscription was replaced by universal military service.

V. V. GRADOSEL’SKII

References in periodicals archive ?
The draft law defines the foreign public official as a person in a legislative, executive, administrative, or judicial position working for a foreign country, whether elected or appointed, as well as any person who does a public job for a foreign country.
The tourism council will seek to "achieve the best conditions for the implementation of the national strategy for tourism and its subsidiary programmes, in order to promote comprehensive development plans for the tourism sector and organise and promote them internally and externally," the draft law said.
Officials from the FPM and the LF have indicated that their MPs would not attend the sessions, mainly because an electoral draft law was not included on the agenda.
One of the key characteristics of the Draft Law is that it also allows the Court to appoint a foreign expert to supervise the restructuring process.
Khawaja Salman Rafiq directed that immediate meeting of technical members of Board of PBTA should be convened on Tuesday, January 13 for further discussing the proposed draft law so that these members could give final shape to it.
It also includes the first reading of a bill of the House of Representatives, and the first reading of the draft law on the residence of foreigners, and the first reading of the draft law on passports, and the first reading of a draft law on ratification of the amended Convention of Arab cooperation in the field of organizing and facilitating relief operations.
The draft law will also authorise the Cabinet to establish lists of designated terrorist organisations and persons.
Lack of clear definitions: A number of definitions in the Draft Law are unclear, notably the definition of 'content data', which partially reproduces the definition of 'computer data' as stipulated in the Cybercrime Convention.
The draft law bans employment of children before they reach the age of 15.
The committee also decided to prepare its final supplementary report on the draft law amending some provisions of Law No 22 for the year 2006 on the protection of copyright and related rights, in the light of the recommendations and views submitted by the authorities the committee met with earlier.
A) - A deputy of the main opposition Republican People's Party (CHP) from Ankara, Sinan Aygun, on Tuesday submitted a draft law to the Turkish Parliament that calls on the "recognition of French genocide in Algeria and Rwanda".
Academic personalities on Thursday stressed that the general elections draft law paves the way for democratic practices through open lists, respects the will of the individual and constitutes an important step on the way to change, development and reform.