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see geneticsgenetics,
scientific study of the mechanism of heredity. While Gregor Mendel first presented his findings on the statistical laws governing the transmission of certain traits from generation to generation in 1856, it was not until the discovery and detailed study of the
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the overall genetic constitution of an organism/species as constituted by the chromosomal makeup of every member (the term arises from a combination of the terms ‘gene’ and ‘chromosome’). See also GENETICS, HUMAN GENOME PROJECT.



a haploid chromosome set; the sum total of the genes localized in the individual set of chromosomes of a given organism. The term was introduced in 1920 by the German biologist H. Winkler. The genome is usually understood to mean the sum of the genes concentrated in the chromosomes, without taking into account the hereditary determinants connected with the structures of cytoplasm. In the gametes of diploid organisms, as well as in the cells of haploid organisms, there is one genome; in the somatic cells of diploid organisms there are two genomes. With an increase in ploidy of the cells, the number of genomes grows. In fertilization, the genomes of the paternal and maternal gametes unite. As a rule, genomes obtained from paternal and maternal gametes are homologous. Homology between all or some genomes exists in all but distant hybrids. Absolute homology of two genomes may be defined as the coinciding of the linear arrangement of the genes in every chromosome. This coinciding ensures the possibility of the normal conjugation of chromosomes in meiosis.

Changes in the number of chromosomes (for example, polyploidy or an increase or loss of individual chromosomes) are called genomic mutations. An organism in which one and the same genome is repeated several times is called au-topolyploid. An organism in which different genomes are combined is called allopolyploid. Wheats may serve as an example of the allopolyploids. The haploid number of chromosomes in hard wheat is 14, in soft wheat, 21; and in einkorn, seven. By hybridization and the study of the conjugation of chromosomes in meiosis, it was ascertained that in all wheats there is one common genome (genome A) made up of seven chromosomes. In hard and soft wheat there are two common genomes (genomes A, B), each having seven chromosomes. Finally, in soft wheat, there is still another special genome (genome D), also made up of seven chromosomes. Thus, the genomic formula for einkorn is AA and for hard wheat it is AABB. Soft wheat, which has arisen in the process of evolution by the crossing of three different wild cereals and by the doubling of the number of chromosomes in the hybrids, has the genomic formula AABBDD.

In the experiments of the Soviet geneticist G. D. Kar-pechenko, radish and cabbage genomes were combined for the first time in a hybrid organism. By means of corresponding crossings and cytological analysis, the origin of separate genomes can be established. For example, V. A. Rybin obtained (resynthesized) a cultivated plum by crossing the cherry plum and the sloe; thus it was established that the genome of a plum includes cherry plum and sloe genomes. Of great significance in understanding the structure and functioning of the genome have been the establishment of the structure of the molecules of nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) and of the mechanisms of their replication, and the establishment of the means of “tracing” and transmitting genetic information.



The genetic endowment of a species.
The haploid set of chromosomes.


, genom
1. the full complement of genetic material within an organism
2. all the genes comprising a haploid set of chromosomes
References in periodicals archive ?
The timing of the release of the potato draft sequence is nice for the SolCAP project," Douches said.
By comparing our draft sequence with samples taken from many hundreds of devils suffering from this cancer, we can begin to look at the spread of the disease, quite literally, by identifying geographical routes and barriers in its transmission.
Currently, the Brown Norway is the only rat strain with a high quality draft sequence available.
Malek said that he and his colleagues will continue to improve the draft sequence and publish their data.
The Research in Progress link leads to Web sites that display the entire working draft sequence of the human genome and provide tools for its use.
Scientist from a consortium of Norwegian marine and aquaculture institutions announced this week that they have generated the first ever draft sequence and assembly of the Atlantic cod genome.
Neanderthal: A draft sequence of the Neanderthal genome should be published sometime this year.
Announcement of bonobo genome draft sequence opens new doors to understanding the evolutionary history of humans and apes.
In February, scientists led by a team of researchers at Washington University completed a draft sequence of the corn genome.
While the scientists intend to add more coverage to this draft sequence in preparation for data release, they were able in their analysis to date to:
With a draft sequence, Briggs and his team will be able to home in on more genes known to have changed since humans split with chimpanzees, six million years ago, and determine where Neanderthals stand in relation.

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