Mikhail Ivanovich Dragomirov

(redirected from Dragomirov)

Dragomirov, Mikhail Ivanovich

 

Born Nov. 8 (20), 1830, near Konotop, in present-day Sumy Oblast, Ukrainian SSR; died Oct. 15 (28), 1905, in Konotop. Russian military theoretician and instructor. Infantry general (1891). Son of an officer.

Dragomirov began military service in 1849. He graduated from the General Staff Academy in 1856 and served in the Guards General Staff. Dragomirov was attached to the headquarters of the Sardinian Army at the time of the Austro-Franco-Italian War (1859). Subsequently he became an instructor (1860) and from 1863 to 1869 a professor in the department of military tactics at the Nicholas Academy of the General Staff.

From 1869 to 1873, Dragomirov served as chief of staff of the Kiev military district. He commanded the 14th Infantry Division (1873-77) and fought with the division in the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-78. Dragomirov successfully directed the crossing of the Danube at Zimnicea, as well as military actions during the defense of Shipka, where he was wounded. In 1878 he was made chief of the General Staff Academy. Eleven years later (1889) he became the Kiev Military District commander. He was appointed governor-general of Kiev, Podol’e, and Volyn’ (1898), and in 1903 he became a member of the State Council.

Beginning in the 1850’s, Dragomirov devoted himself to problems of military instruction. Ascribing great importance to the factor of fighting morale, he developed the ideas of A. V. Surovov; he required that soldiers be instructed only in problems of combat and opposed military drilling. He assigned an exceptional role to military discipline and favored introduction into the army of a strict legal code, obligatory for all soldiers. He believed that soldiers should be inculcated with a conscientious attitude toward their duties and emphasized the officer’s role in setting a personal example, Dragomirov did much to develop the tactic of skirmish lines. In 1879 he wrote the Textbook of Tactics, which for more than 20 years was a basic reference work in the General Staff Academy. However, Dragomirov’s elevation of human will in war to an idealistic absolute led him to contrast man to equipment and to underestimate the value of new military technology and the improvement of armaments.

WORKS

Izbr. trudy. Moscow, 1956.
Sbornik original’nykh iperevodnykh statei,2. St. Petersburg, 1881.
14 let, 1881-1894: Sbornik original’nykh i perevodnykh statei. St. Petersburg, 1895.
Odinnadtsat’ let, 1895-1905 gg.: Sbornik original’nykh i perevodnykh statei za 1895-1905 gg., books 1-2. St. Petersburg, 1909.
References in periodicals archive ?
Address : For: DR ELSA DRAGOMIROV, Bulgaria 2307, Pernik
Dragomirov to Zhilinskii, and Skalon to Zhilinskii, 29 November 1912, RGVIA, f.
However, complicating her job is the distraction of Nik Dragomirov, the mysterious vamp who gave her one searing kiss and then disappeared.
Dragomirov openly and fiercely opposed Aleksei Kuropatkin, Nicholas II's minister of war, who demanded more awareness of the new-era battlefield and soldiering.
Dragomirov's influence remained unsurpassed for years, to the extent that Steinberg even refers to a cult of Dragomirov (77).
In the historical literature, as the books by Persson and Steinberg confirm, General Dragomirov has a complicated reputation.
Persson portrays Dragomirov as one of Russia's military representatives in Europe and a military thinker valued abroad (he was appointed to the Swedish Royal Military Academy [78]).
The next part of Cardiff's story may well now partly be written by men and women with surnames like Draganov and Dragomirov.
Dragomirov ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 1-17) discusses Nikolai's role in the Denisov affair, but only to point out the unethical actions of the army in relation to a war hero, Denisov.
Dragomirov analyzes Tolstoy's text from the perspective of military theory, concluding that Tolstoy's detailed descriptions of battle and war-time society provide a useful pedagogical tool.
In doing so Orwin came to the conclusion that while both Tolstoy and Dragomirov emphasize the importance of will over reason on the battlefield, the latter--a soldier and military commander who was committed to maintaining the significance of his role within battle--disagreed with Tolstoy's assertion that human will is inimical to human nature and essentially irrational.
In one of a number of articles he wrote on Tolstoy's novel in 1868 and 1869, Dragomirov writes: