Johann Gustav Droysen

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Droysen, Johann Gustav

 

Born July 6, 1808, in Treptow (now Trebiatów, Poland); died June 19, 1884, in Berlin. German historian.

Droysen was made a professor at the University of Kiel in 1840, at the University of Jena in 1851, and at the University of Berlin in 1859. An active participant in the revolution of 1848-49 in Germany as a moderate liberal politician, he was a member of the constitutional commission of the Federal Diet and a deputy to the Frankfurt Parliament. He advocated unification of Germany “from above” under the leadership of Prussia and the establishment of a constitutional monarchy.

Droysen was a prominent representative of the Smaller Germany (kleindeutsch) school of historical writing and produced a number of works on Prussian history. His political convictions were reflected in his works on ancient history of the Hellenistic period, for he glorified the Macedonian monarchy, regarding it as the highest form of national unification of the Greeks, and he idealized Alexander the Great and his achievements.

Droysen introduced the term “Hellenism” into scholarly circles and made a detailed study of the Hellenistic period for the first time in historical science, bringing his account down to 222 B.C. (The History of Hellenism; Russian translation, vols. 1-3, 1890-93). Droysen understood Hellenism to mean “the spread of the Greek system of government and education” among the peoples of the East, but he ignored the socioeconomic essence of Hellenism.

WORKS

Geschichte Alexanders des Grossen. Hamburg, 1833.
Geschichte des Hellenismus, vols. 1-2. Hamburg, 1836-43.
Vorlesungen über das Zeitalter der Freihheitskriege, 2nd ed., parts 1-2. Gotha, 1886.
Geschichte der preussischen Politik, vols. 1-5. Leipzig, 1859-86.
Grundriss der Historik. Halle, 1925.

O. I. SAVOST’IANOVA

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Na Alemanha, pode-se dizer que duas escolas historicas se sobressairam: a Escola Rankeana e a Escola historica Prussiana, sendo assim, o pensamento historico germanico passa por pesquisadores como Leopold von Ranke, Heinrich von Sybel, Barthold Georg Niebuhr, Johann Gustav Droysen, Georg Gottfried Gervinus, entre outros (BENTIVOGLIO 2011; SCHOLTZ 2011).
A partir de aqui la controversia se centraria en el debate sobre la objetividad cientifica entre Droysen y Ranke, asi como Dilthey en el ambito de las ciencias humanas.
Hegels eindrucksvolle Konstruktion eines prinzipiengeleiteten Gangs der geschichtlichen Entwicklung, die im idealistischen Systemzusammenhang aufgehoben ist, pragt die Geschichtswissenschaft in unverkennbarerWeise, und dies gilt unbeschadet der Distanzierungen gegenuber der philosophischen Spekulation etwa bei Leopold von Ranke und Johann Gustav Droysen.
Principal among these implications was the growing awareness, evident in Johann Gustav Droysen, that the interpretation of history demanded a mode of reasoning distinct from that of the natural sciences.
La Historia como disciplina, desde Ranke, Niebuhr y Droysen, se oriento hacia la reconstruccion de la realidad pasada--de manera objetiva con fuentes primarias-.
Asi, a la larga, se libero a la historia del dominio de la ley natural al distinguir claramente entre Naturaleza e Historia, lo que daria lugar con Droysen y Dilthey a la distincion entre ciencias de la naturaleza y ciencias del espiritu.
Al respecto, Johann Gustav Droysen plantea que el ser humano expresa su interioridad mediante manifestaciones sensibles y el no captar la parte interna de un hecho, accion social o conducta equivale a no comprenderlo (1).
En el sentido contrario de esta anulacion del sujeto, fue Johan Gustav Droysen, en 1887, el primero que propusiera la empresa historiografica como un proceso empirico cuyos resultados eran construidos intelectualmente.
Lo interesante de los planteamientos de Gallagher y Bruner es la defensa de una posicion critica con respecto al reduccionismo naturalista que insiste en que solo es importante la busqueda de causas, pero--y esta es una idea central en este trabajo--no hasta el punto de caer en el otro extremo, en el que se postula que, en relacion con los temas de las ciencias humanas, todo se reduce a la interpretacion, o en el que se apela para explicar como entendemos a los otros, por ejemplo, a un <<espiritu humano universal>> (como hacen representantes de la hermeneutica tales como Droysen o Dilthey).
During the second half of the nineteenth century, Johann Gustav Droysen diagnoses what will later come to be known as the "crisis of historicism", i.
Droysen (1808-84) wrote in a sonorous style, but the biography is difficult to read because of its philosophical density, historical detail, and hypostactic style.