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a powdered food product made by drying evaporated milk. Dry milk was first produced in Russia in 1802; it was commercially manufactured there beginning in the late 19th century. Dry milk is made by means of spray or roller drying. The fluid milk is first pasteurized and evaporated in vacuum evaporators. In spray drying, the concentrated milk is dried in an atomizing unit in contact with hot air (150°–180°C); in roller drying, the milk is applied to the surface of rollers heated to 103°–105°C.
Both whole and nonfat dry milk are manufactured. Their respective compositions are as follows: fat, 25 and 1 percent; protein, 25.5 and 36 percent; lactose, 36.5 and 52 percent; minerals, 9 and 6 percent; and moisture, 4 and 5 per cent. The caloric value of 100 g of whole dry milk is 2,300 kilojoules (549.3 kilocalories), and that of nonfat dry milk, 1,567 kilojoules (373 kilocalories). When dry milk is dissolved (reconstituted) in warm water (38°–45°C), the resulting product is the equal of pasteurized fresh milk, both organoleptically and in terms of food value.
Pasteurized reconstituted milk is distributed in many cities of the USSR in winter, when the supply of fresh milk becomes inadequate owing to weather conditions. Whole reconstituted milk is used mainly for direct consumption, whereas reconstituted nonfat milk is used in the manufacture of bread, pastry, and macaroni products and in the production of substitutes for whole milk that are fed to young farm animals. The production of instant dry milk is being expanded. Dry milk is widely used abroad. The world production of dry milk, both whole and nonfat, exceeded 3.6 million tons in 1975.
REFERENCESKivenko, S. F., and V. V. Strakhov. Proizvodstvo sukhogo i sgushchennogo moloka. Moscow, 1965.
Lipatov, N. N. Teoreticheskie predposylki proizvodstva sukhogo bystrorastvorimogo moloka. Moscow, 1972.
N. N. LIPATOV