A 20 year-long study of the soil fauna, nematodes, and other animal species in the McMurdo Dry Valleys
have shown that rising climatic conditions since 2001 has led to a decline in the microorganisms in the region.
This exceptionally dry climate means that everything in the Dry Valleys
is perfectly preserved.
The perennially ice-covered lakes, ephemeral streams, and extensive areas of exposed soil within the McMurdo Dry Valleys
(MCM) are subject to low temperatures and limited precipitation.
They exist in the harshest of environments - in deep sea thermal vents, in sulphurous hot springs, the Dead Sea, the dry valleys
of the Antarctic, the high atmosphere, radioactive dumps - to name but a few.
His polar experience was immediately put to use when he assumed the leadership of the 1958-59 VUW Antarctic Expedition to the Dry Valleys
For Head, the clincher was his first foray, a decade ago, to study the dry valleys
And Mount Morning and the adjacent Dry Valleys
region get very little snowfall, so glaciers haven't touched most of the mountain, either.
They describe daily life and talk about food and loneliness, riding snowmobiles, finding love, and life in three US bases--McMurdo, South Pole, and Palmer--and in camps in the Dry Valleys
or on Ross Island.
Antarctica's average annual rainfall is about the same as the Sahara Desert at 1 in (25 mm), but 2 per cent of it, known as the Dry Valleys
, is free of ice and it never rains there at all.
In between, dry valleys
, mid-altitude cloud forest, and the Lake Titicaca basin provided maize, beans, and coca.
The remaining have uncertain status, but could eventually qualify as subregions as well (Chiquitania, deciduous forests of northern La Paz, dry valleys
of southern Peru, deciduous forests of northern Peru and even the Chaco Serrano of Cochabamba).
Professor Jon Davidson and Dr Dougal Jerram joined researchers from John Hopkins University, in America, in studying rocks at Dry Valleys
, a sub-zero desert in Antarctica.