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any philosophical system that seeks to explain all phenomena in terms of two distinct and irreducible principles. It is opposed to monism and pluralism. In PlatoPlato
, 427?–347 B.C., Greek philosopher. Plato's teachings have been among the most influential in the history of Western civilization. Life

After pursuing the liberal studies of his day, he became in 407 B.C. a pupil and friend of Socrates. From about 388 B.
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's philosophy there is an ultimate dualism of being and becoming, of ideas and matter. AristotleAristotle
, 384–322 B.C., Greek philosopher, b. Stagira. He is sometimes called the Stagirite. Life

Aristotle's father, Nicomachus, was a noted physician. Aristotle studied (367–347 B.C.
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 criticized Plato's doctrine of the transcendence of ideas, but he was unable to escape the dualism of form and matter, and in modern metaphysicsmetaphysics
, branch of philosophy concerned with the ultimate nature of existence. It perpetuates the Metaphysics of Aristotle, a collection of treatises placed after the Physics [Gr.
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 this dualism has been a persistent concept. In modern philosophy dualism takes many forms. Thus in Immanuel KantKant, Immanuel
, 1724–1804, German metaphysician, one of the greatest figures in philosophy, b. Königsberg (now Kaliningrad, Russia). Early Life and Works
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 there is an ontological dualism between the phenomenal and noumenal worlds and an epistemological dualism between the passivity of sensation and the spontaneity of the understanding. In psychology occasionalism and interactionism both assumed a dualism of mind and matter. The term also has a theological application, e.g., ManichaeismManichaeism
or Manichaeanism
, religion founded by Mani (c.216–c.276). Mani's Life

Mani (called Manes by the Greeks and Romans) was born near Baghdad, probably of Persian parents; his father may have been a member of the Mandaeans.
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 explained evil in the world as resulting from an ultimate evil principle, coeternal with good. See also monismmonism
[Gr.,=belief in one], in metaphysics, term introduced in the 18th cent. by Christian von Wolff for any theory that explains all phenomena by one unifying principle or as manifestations of a single substance.
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 and pluralismpluralism,
in philosophy, theory that considers the universe explicable in terms of many principles or composed of many ultimate substances. It describes no particular system and may be embodied in such opposed philosophical concepts as materialism and idealism. Empedocles, G. W.
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any doctrine in which the fundamental forms of things, 'S ubstances’, reality, etc, are seen as of two contrasting types, without any possibility of one being reduced to the other, for example:
  1. (PHILOSOPHY) a distinction between ‘material’ things and ‘mental’ ideas;
  2. (SOCIOLOGY) distinctions between nature and nurture (see NATURE–NURTURE DEBATE), or between individual agency and the structural determination of social outcomes.

In philosophy, the alternative to dualism is monism, which asserts that ‘things’, substances, etc, are all of one basic kind, either ‘material’ in form (see MATERIALISM) or ‘mental’. A further position, REALISM, argues that there is only one reality, even if this reality is 'S tratified’, i.e. contains fundamental differences of type, even if stopping short of dualism.

In current philosophy and sociology rather than an outright ‘dualism’, a frequent position is to recognize the utility of thinking in terms of a duality of forms -mind and matter, or structure and agency – in which there exists a dialectical interaction between the two kinds of‘thing’, but with no justification for sustaining a claim that there exist any ultimately irreducible kinds, e.g. see DUALITY OF STRUCTURE. See also DESCARTES, STRUCTURE AND AGENCY.



a philosophical doctrine that proceeds from the recognition of the two fundamental principles—spirit and matter, the ideal and the material—as equal and not reducible to each other. Dualism is opposed to monism (materialistic or idealistic), which proceeds from the recognition of only one principle as fundamental, and can be regarded as a variant of pluralism, which asserts a multiplicity of principles of being. The term “dualism” was introduced by the German philosopher C. Wolff and designated the recognition of two substances: the material and the spiritual. One of the most important spokesmen for the dualistic position was R. Descartes, who divided being into a thinking substance (the spirit) and an extended substance (matter). Descartes resolved the problem of the interrelation of these two substances within man (the psychophysical problem) from the position of psychophysical parallelism, according to which psychological and physiological processes do not depend on each other.

Characteristic of modern philosophy are the forms of epistemological dualism that, as distinct from ontological dualism, proceed not from the contraposition of substances but from the opposition of a knowing subject to a known object. Thus, for J. Locke and D. Hume consciousness appears as a totality of isolated perceptions, feelings, and ideas, which do not have a unifying substantial basis. Another variant of epistemological dualism was presented by E. Kant, who regarded consciousness as an activity that orders the data of experience according to its own laws, which are independent of the external world according to a priori forms of sensory apprehension and reason. Epistemological dualism is invariably connected with agnosticism—the conviction that the world cannot be known by the consciousness.

The concept of dualism is also applied to conceptions and doctrines that assert the equality of any opposed fundamental principles or spheres: thus, one speaks of the dualism of good and evil in Manichaeism and of the dualism, characteristic of the Kantian tradition, of the world of nature, that is, the world of phenomena, which is structured according to the principle of causality (necessity), as opposed to the world of freedom, that is, of “things in themselves.” Dialectical materialism is opposed to all forms of dualism; it asserts materialistic monism, which proceeds from the conviction that all phenomena in the world are different forms and manifestations of moving matter.


References in periodicals archive ?
That might seem to imply that he favors a dualist account of the mind.
Dualists certainly believe it is a valid one, but it is not without its critics.
The first author then compared the separate themes for dualists and relativists and subsumed the pairs of themes into five overall categories of counselor interview functioning.
The Whiteheadians were right to bet everything on emergence, which had impressive evidence on its side, solved problems that dualist and materialist theories didn't solve, provided an overarching framework for multi-disciplinary discussions, and offered a compelling model of God's relation to the world.
Chapter 7, entitled "Good and Evil," devotes only eight pages to the medieval dualist tradition.
To dualists, they are "gifts" in the true sense of that word: something given, something from outside of ourselves, something not truly our own.
The dualist or Manichaean and Gnostic elements of the Albigensian heresy are conceived as having survived in some underground form through hundreds of years from the first Christian centuries and to have arrived in Languedoc from across a relatively immense geographical reach since the traditional area of influence of the religion of Mani and the Gnostic sects was Persia.
Thus, in defending his position, he relies primarily on metaphysical lemmas to the effect that the standard materialist and dualist solutions to the mind/body problem are inadequate.
Tetlock's (1986, 1989) value pluralism model provides a useful base for developing hypotheses as to how one might distinguish moral relativists from dualists.
Ullmann explains: "What the dualists aimed at in their opposition to the papacy was the ascription of autonomous and indigenous character to the `temporal'.
Following Descartes, contemporary Dualists argue that from the fact that we can conceive of a world in which the relevant physical and functional properties are instantiated but in which there is no conscious experience, it follows that such a world is possible.
Both these authors are loyal dualists, upholding the tension of the higher law ontology against ideological pressures.