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(bīăth`lŏn), sport in which cross-country skiers race across hilly terrain, occasionally stopping to shoot, prone or standing as required, with rifles at sets of fixed targets. The biathlon features the 10-km (6.2-mi) sprint, in which contestants shoot at two sets of targets; the 12.5-km (7.8-mi) pursuit, in which contestants shoot four times and start at intervals determined by their finish in the sprint; the 20-km (12.5-mi) race with four shooting stops; a 30 contestant, 15-km (9.3-mi) mass start race with four shooting stops; and a relay race with four 7.5-km (4.7-mi) legs and two shooting stops per leg. The women's races are shorter: a 7.5-km (4.7-mi) sprint, a 10-km (6.2-mi) pursuit, a 15-km (9.3-mi) race, a 12.5-km (7.8-mi) mass start race, and a relay with 6-km (3.7-mi) legs. In the mixed relay, two women and then two men ski a leg of the appropriate length. Competitors are penalized for each missed target by having a standard length added to the course distance that they must complete, or by having a minute added to their time. The control of fine motor skills and breathing required to shoot after the skiing segment makes this a demanding sport. Biathlon competition developed from the military training of ski troops. The sport first became an official part of the Winter Olympics in 1960. Biathlon has also recently acquired meaning as applied to a combined two-sport competition, such as running and swimming.



a modern winter two-event competition—ski racing with riflery. While covering a distance of 20 km, the athlete makes five shots each at four firing ranges between the fifth and 18th kilometers: twice at a target 30 cm in diameter (while upright) and twice at a target 15 cm in diameter (while prostrate). The distance to the targets is 150 m. For each miss there is a penalty of two minutes, which are added to the time shown in the ski race. In 1960 the biathlon was incorporated into the program of the winter Olympic games. The winners of the Olympic games have been K. Lestander, a Swede (1960, Squaw Valley), Soviet athlete V. Melan’in (1964, Innsbruck), and M. Solberg (1968,Grenoble). At the Xth Olympics (1968, Grenoble) the 4 × 7.5-km relay was won by the team of Soviet biathlonists (A. Tikhonov, N. Puzanov, V. Mamatov, and V.Gundartsev). Among Soviet athletes, world champions in the biathlon have been V. Melan’in (1959), V. Mamatov (1967), A. Tikhonov (1969), and A. Ushakov (juniors, 1969). In the world championship (1969) the 4 × 7.5-km relay was won by Soviet athletes A. Tikhonov, V. Mamatov, V. Gundartsev, and R. Safin, and the 3 x 7.5-km relay was won by Soviet juniors V. Tolkachev, A. Tagirov, and A. Ushakov.

References in periodicals archive ?
For duathlon, almost all races are at the relatively short distances described above.
For up-to-date race details or further race information, please follow @LambtonDuathlon on Twitter or search for the Lambton Duathlon on Facebook.
I am now aiming to podium at the World Duathlon long distance championships in Switzerland in September.
FIT Dave Thomas, winner of the duathlon, left and far left, held in Morpeth yesterday
And he missed out on becoming World duathlon champ by seconds when a puncture cruelly scuppered his bid for glory in the US.
He said "The Duathlon race is one of the major sport events, which is organised and supported by NBHF, with the purpose of spreading awareness on the positive effects of sports on human health, especially among the youth.
The duathlon comprises a 5k run followed by a 20k bikeride and culminates in a 2.
HOLMFIRTH Harriers' Mark Buckingham retained his British Elite Duathlon Championships title for the third year in succession.
The Riffa Views Duathlon is a unique event for Bahrain, made up of a 3km run, followed by a 20km cycle and then a 5km run, and will take place on March 16.
RITCHIE NICHOLLS reckons he can scoop the World Duathlon Championship in Edinburgh today - after being pushed to the limit by Liz McColgan.
TRIATHLON: World champion Alistair Brownlee may compete in this year's world duathlon in Edinburgh.
athlete to finish in his age group at the 2007 World Duathlon Short Course World Championships held in Gyor, Hungary in May.