Monmouth, James Scott, duke of

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Monmouth, James Scott, duke of

(mŏn`məth), 1649–85, pretender to the English throne; illegitimate son of Charles II of England by Lucy WalterWalter, Lucy,
1630?–1658, mistress (1648–50) of Charles II of England during his exile in Holland and France. She was the mother by him of James Scott, duke of Monmouth, whom the Whigs supported as heir to the throne in their attempt to exclude James, duke of York
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. After his mother's death, he was cared for by Lord Crofts, by whose name the boy was known. In 1662, James went to live at Charles's court. Charles acknowledged him as his son, created him (1663) duke of Monmouth, and married him to Anne Scott, countess of Buccleuch, whose name James now adopted. He held military commands on the Continent (1672–74), became captain general in 1678, and defeated the Scottish Covenanters at Bothwell Bridge in 1679. Politically he became very important after feeling against the succession of the Roman Catholic duke of York (later James IIJames II,
1633–1701, king of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1685–88); second son of Charles I, brother and successor of Charles II. Early Life
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) was heightened at the time of the Popish Plot agitation in 1678. The 1st earl of ShaftesburyShaftesbury, Anthony Ashley Cooper, 1st earl of,
1621–83, English statesman. In the English civil war he supported the crown until 1644 but then joined the parliamentarians.
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 and other supporters of a Protestant succession championed Monmouth as heir to Charles and tried in vain to get Charles to prove his son legitimate. In 1679, Charles sent both Monmouth and the duke of York into exile. When Monmouth returned without the king's permission, he was forbidden to come to court but was received enthusiastically in London and the western counties. Monmouth worked with Shaftesbury and the Whig party for the exclusion of James from the succession, and after the arrest of Shaftesbury for treason in 1681 he was heard to speak openly of rebellion. When the Rye House PlotRye House Plot,
1683, conspiracy to assassinate Charles II of England and his brother James, duke of York (later James II), as they passed by Rumbold's Rye House in Hertfordshire on the road from Newmarket to London.
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 was discovered (1683) and some of the Whig leaders were arrested, Monmouth fled to Holland. James II succeeded Charles in Feb., 1685. In June, Monmouth landed at Lyme Regis, Dorset, and raised a small force. At Taunton he was proclaimed king, and for a short time his chances for success looked very promising. But the gentry failed to come to his support, and his army was routed at Sedgemoor by James's troops, led by John Churchill (later duke of Marlborough). Monmouth was captured and beheaded in London on July 15.
References in classic literature ?
We were prevented from any further discourse at present by the arrival of the apothecary; who, with much joy in his countenance, and without even asking his patient how he did, proclaimed there was great news arrived in a letter to himself, which he said would shortly be public, `That the Duke of Monmouth was landed in the west with a vast army of Dutch; and that another vast fleet hovered over the coast of Norfolk, and was to make a descent there, in order to favour the duke's enterprize with a diversion on that side.
But all had not the sense to foresee this at first; and therefore the Duke of Monmouth was weakly supported; yet all could feel when the evil came upon them; and therefore all united, at last, to drive out that king, against whose exclusion a great party among us had so warmly contended during the reign of his brother, and for whom they now fought with such zeal and affection.
1685: The Duke of Monmouth was executed for leading a rebellion against his uncle, James II.
1685: The Battle of Sedgemoor in Somerset - the last on English soil - took place with victory for James II's Royalist forces over the rebels under the Duke of Monmouth.
The ship is named after the Duke of Monmouth who led an unsuccessful attempt in 1685 to overthrow the Crown in what became known as the Monmouth Rebellion.
FRIDAY, C5, 7PM Bloody Tales of the Tower Historian Suzannah Lipscomb, left, explores the gory history of the 900-yearold Tower of London starting with the beheading of the Duke of Monmouth.
1685: The Battle of Sedgemoor in Somerset took place - the last on English soil - with victory for James II's Royalist forces over the rebels under the Duke of Monmouth.
CONNECTIONS of Duke Of Monmouth will surely be disappointed if he cannot find the target for the first time in the Banner Marquees "National Hunt" Novices' Hurdle at Uttoxeter tomorrow.
1606: Rembrandt (Harmenszoon van Rijn), Dutch painter, was born 1685: The Duke of Monmouth was executed for leading a rebellion against his uncle, James II.
He also discusses men who adapted Philips's poems, most strikingly the Duke of Monmouth, who had his adaptations with him at the time of his being captured in 1685.
The lives of Scott's fictional heroes and heroines inevitably intersect with those of famous historical personages--Bonnie Prince Charlie, the Duke of Monmouth, Cromwell, Saladin--during a period of political crisis of far-reaching consequence: the Jacobite war of 1745, the Scottish religious wars and political rebellions of the 17th century, the English Civil War, the Crusades.
Anniversaries: 1535: Sir Thomas More executed; 1685: James II's troops defeated the Duke of Monmouth at the Battle of Sedgemoor, the last battle fought on English soil; 1747: Birth of American naval hero John Paul Jones; 1885: Louis Pasteur successfully treated a subject with his anti-rabies vaccine; 1907: The Brooklands motor racing circuit was opened; 1928: The first all-talking feature film, The Lights of New York, was shown in New York; 1952: London's first tram ran.