Dundee, John Graham of Claverhouse, 1st Viscount


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Dundee, John Graham of Claverhouse, 1st Viscount

(klăv`ərəs, dŭndē`), 1649?–1689, Scottish soldier, known as Bonnie Dundee. After service abroad under William of Orange (later William III of England), he returned (1678) to Scotland to help in the suppression of the CovenantersCovenanters
, in Scottish history, groups of Presbyterians bound by oath to sustain each other in the defense of their religion. The first formal Covenant was signed in 1557, signaling the beginning of the Protestant effort to seize power in Scotland.
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, a task to which he devoted himself for 10 years. He was second in command of the Scottish force vainly sent to help James II repel William of Orange in 1688, and James made him Viscount Dundee. After James's flight, Dundee raised forces in Scotland to help restore him, but was killed in his hour of victory at KilliecrankieKilliecrankie, Pass of
, wooded pass, Perth and Kinross, central Scotland, through which the river Garry flows, near Pitlochry. There Jacobite Highlanders defeated (1689) a large government force under Hugh MacKay, and the Jacobite leader, Viscount Dundee, was killed.
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. Loathed by the Covenanters and venerated by the JacobitesJacobites
, adherents of the exiled branch of the house of Stuart who sought to restore James II and his descendants to the English and Scottish thrones after the Glorious Revolution of 1688. They take their name from the Latin form (Jacobus) of the name James.
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, Dundee has been immortalized in ballads and novels, especially in Sir Walter Scott's song usually called Bonnie Dundee and in Scott's Old Mortality.

Bibliography

See his memorials and letters (ed. by M. Napier, 1859–62); biographies by C. S. Terry (1905) and A. N. and H. A. N. Taylor (1939).

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