Dongola

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Dongola

(dŏng`gələ), region, part of Northern state, Sudan. Old Dongola, c.75 mi (120 km) south of the present city of Dongola, was the capital of the Christian kingdom of Makurra or NubiaNubia
, ancient state of NE Africa. At the height of its political power Nubia extended, from north to south, from the First Cataract of the Nile (near Aswan, Egypt) to Khartoum, in Sudan. It early came under the influence of the pharaohs, and in the 20th cent. B.C.
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. It was taken by the MamluksMamluk
or Mameluke
[Arab.,=slaves], a warrior caste dominant in Egypt and influential in the Middle East for over 700 years. Islamic rulers created this warrior caste by collecting non-Muslim slave boys and training them as cavalry soldiers especially loyal to their
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 in 1275. The first Muslim ruler, a puppet of the Mamluks, ascended the throne in 1315. His successor gained independence in 1325, but the Muslims reconquered the land in 1366 and the capital was abandoned. Dongola was briefly ruled (1811–20) by Mamluk refugees from Egypt. The Mahdists, in the course of their revolt (see MahdiMahdi
[Arab.,=he who is divinely guided], in Sunni Islam, the restorer of the faith. He will appear at the end of time to restore justice on earth and establish universal Islam. The Mahdi will be preceded by al-Dajjal, a Muslim antichrist, who will be slain by Jesus.
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), held it from 1885 to 1896.

Dongola

 

a historical region between the third and fourth cataracts of the Nile in the Northern Province of the Sudan. Until the middle of the fourth century A.D. Dongola was part of the country of Cush (Nubia). By the sixth century the state of Mugurra (with its capital at Old Dongola) existed in the region, the population of which by this time was Christianized. The increased migrations of Arabs between the tenth and 13th centuries (begun in the seventh-ninth centuries) and the repeated raids of the Mamelukes beginning in the 13th century contributed to the spread of Islam in the region. Dongola flourished in the 12th century primarily as a result of the transit trade in slaves as well as in iron and ivory. In the 16th century Dongola was incorporated into the Muslim state of Sennar, which led to the decline of Christianity in Dongola. In 1820, Dongola was conquered by the forces of the Egyptian pasha Mehemet Ali, and in 1821 it was annexed to Egypt. In 1899 it was included in the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan. With the creation of an independent Sudan in 1956, Dongola was incorporated into the Northern Province.

REFERENCES

Drevnie i srednevekovye istochniki po etnografii i istorii narodov Afriki iuzhnee Sakhary, vol. 1. Moscow-Leningrad, 1960.
Smirnov, S. R. Istoriia Sudana (1821-1956). Moscow, 1968.

I. S. KATSNEL’SON

Dongola

a small town in the N Sudan, on the Nile: built on the site of Old Dongola, the capital of the Christian Kingdom of Nubia (6th to 14th centuries). Pop.: 5937 (latest est.)