duodenum

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Related to Duodeno: duodenitis, duodenum, pancreas

duodenum:

see intestineintestine,
muscular hoselike portion of the gastrointestinal tract extending from the lower end of the stomach (pylorus) to the anal opening. In humans this fairly narrow (about 1 in./2.
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; pancreaspancreas
, glandular organ that secretes digestive enzymes and hormones. In humans, the pancreas is a yellowish organ about 7 in. (17.8 cm) long and 1.5 in. (3.8 cm) wide. It lies beneath the stomach and is connected to the small intestine at the duodenum (see digestive system).
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.

Duodenum

 

the first section (individually distinct in man, mammals, and birds) of the small intestine, from the pylorus to the jejunum.

The length of the duodenum in man is approximately 25–30 cm (the width of about 12 fingers—hence the name); its volume is 150–250 ml. The wall of the duodenum consists of three layers: the inner layer of mucous membrane, the middle layer of muscular membrane, and the external layer of serous membrane. The mucous membrane forms numerous transverse folds, its surface studded with villi; it contains cells that manufacture an intestinal juice containing enzymes that break down proteins, fats, and carbohydrates; it also contains enterokinase, which converts trypsinogen, the inactive enzyme of pancreatic juice, to the active trypsin. In the wall of the upper portion of the duodenum are the so-called Brun-ner’s glands, which, in structure and in the composition of the juice they secrete, are closely related to the glands of the pyloric portion of the stomach. The effluent ducts of the pancreas and liver open into the duodenal cavity through a common aperture. The acidic, gruel-like food mass (chyme) passing from the stomach continues to be digested in the duodenum under the influence of enzymes of the alkaline pancreatic and intestinal juices. Proteins are broken down into amino acids, carbohydrates into monosaccharides, and fats into glycerol and fatty acids. Bile promotes the digestion and absorption of fats. Through the walls of the villi the products of proteolysis and glycolysis enter the blood; the products of lypolysis enter the lymph. In the walls of the duodenum an inactive substance is formed (prosecretin) which, under the action of hydrochloric acid entering from the stomach, is converted to the biologically active secretin. Upon entering the blood secretin, acting along with the sympathetic nervous system, stimulates the secretion of pancreatic juice. Ulcer is the most common disease of the duodenum.

duodenum

[dü′äd·ən·əm or dü·ə′dē·nəm]
(anatomy)
The first section of the small intestine of mammals, extending from the pylorus to the jejunum.

duodenum

the first part of the small intestine, between the stomach and the jejunum
References in periodicals archive ?
Quando se fala em ulcera, porem, quase sempre as pessoas se referem as ulceras pepticas, isto e, as ulceras gastricas que surgem no estomago, as ulceras do duodeno, na juncao do estomago com o intestino delgado, e mesmo as do esofago que sao mais raras .
A endoscopia e um procedimento que permite o exame do revestimento interno do esofago, estomago e duodeno (1a porcao do intestino fino) .
La altura de las vellosidades en duodeno fue significativamente mayor en los controles respecto a MOS y MOS+acido (1.
El incremento de la altura de las vellosidades intestinales en el duodeno hacia el dia 7 de vida en aves suplementadas con MOS sugiriere un efecto trofico indirecto sobre la mucosa duodenal, que se expresa ademas con un aumento en el grosor de la pared del duodeno (12).
Pintos oriundos de ovos integros apresentaram maior profundidade de cripta do duodeno em relacao aos pintos de ovos suplementados com sacarose e glicose, e semelhante aqueles de pintos suplementados com maltose (Tabela 6).
As diferencas observadas entre os tratamentos para profundidade de cripta do duodeno e jejuno e para altura dos vilos do ileo nos pintos com um dia nao se mantiveram nos pintos com dez dias de idade, sugerindo que a suplementacao de carboidratos em ovo nao proporcionou o desenvolvimento dos vilos e criptas.
Os valores negativos encontrados na digestibilidade total e ruminal de extrato etereo nos tratamentos com cana-de-acucar fornecida exclusivamente e cana-de-acucar adicionada de ureia provavelmente foram pela sintese 'de novo' dos lipideos pelos microrganismos no rumen, em que as quantidades de lipideos que chegam ao duodeno podem superar a quantidade ingerida.
Comparacao de indicadores de fase solida para medir fluxo de materia seca e materia organica no duodeno.
O fluxo para o duodeno de MO e nitrogenio microbiano foram tambem acrescidos nos animais consumindo dietas com concentrado, embora nao tenham ocorrido diferencas em relacao ao volumoso avaliado.
1]) Fluxo para o Duodeno Duodenal flows MO (kg [dia.
Em seguida, duas amostras de, aproximadamente, 3 cm, foram retiradas da porção inicial do duodeno e final do íleo.