Duplication


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Duplication

 

carrying out similar or identical actions to attain the same aim; or making something in two sets, repetition, doubling. An example of duplication is the joint flight of a pilot trainee and of an instructor in a two-seated training aircraft on which the control instruments are firmly coupled and control can be exercised from either seat.

Duplication, as a one-time reserve, is a technique widely used in technology to increase the reliability of a system or unit or its essential elements or parts. The main and the reserve objects form a duplicated group. Duplication may be of two kinds: in permanent duplication, the main and the reserve objects function simultaneously and are in identical operating conditions; in replacement duplication (manual or automatic), the reserve object begins to function only after the main object fails. Under the second method the reserve object is, until the moment of replacement, in a nonfunctioning state and therefore less liable to failure than the main object.

O. G. LOSNITSKII and V. N. FOMIN

References in periodicals archive ?
Because duplications and deletions involve larger swaths of DNA than SNPs do, their influence on human evolution may also be bigger.
The duplication of fibre networks is also where most of the capital is wasted.
With cutting-edge duplication technology and the latest equipment, the Duplication Centre can offer the UK's leading CD replication service, as well as the nation's most cost-effective DVD duplication and Blu-ray copying.
The third part treats issues that are particularly characteristic of Debussy's musical style: first, "troop coordination"--for instance, overlapping duplications which can themselves be extended or otherwise modified--and "division by Tonics," the layering of voices, each differentiated by texture, rhythm and often also by the use of particular duplication strategies (pp.
2,5] Unilateral complete ureteral duplication with a single renal parenchyma drained by 2 pyelocaliceal systems is even more rare.
CD Team can offer advice on the best disc printing and duplication systems for specific needs," Julia added.
A diagnosis of complete duplication of urethra type 2A-1 as per Effmann's classification (see discussion for classification) was made.
What's exciting for us to learn was that sequence duplication acceleration occurred in an era when other types of mutations had slowed within the hominid (human-like) lineage," said Evan Eichler, UW professor of genome sciences.
The loss duplication regulations generally operate through a "basis redetermination rule," as illustrated in the following example.
She said she's surprised the industry seems to be coming down hard on current efforts, as the key is to prevent duplication, not to make matters more difficult for companies and regulators.
To the Editor: We read with interest the recent case report on the rare occurrence of unilateral testicular duplication with contralateral testicular agenesis or anorchism.
Specializing in CD and DVD duplication, AnyThing Media's logistics Supply Chain Management center has complete fulfillment, mailing, printing, e-commerce, and website design solutions.