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ancient city, Syria: see DuraDura
or Europus
, ancient city of Syria, E of Palmyra on a plateau above the Euphrates River. It is also called Dura-Europos or Dura-Europus. Founded (c.300 B.C.) by a general of Seleucus I, it prospered. In the 2d cent. A.D. the Parthians took Dura, and in A.D.
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(also Doura-Europos), a city in the middle reaches of the Euphrates (near modern-day Qal’at es Salihiye), founded by King Seleucus I Nicator circa 300 B.C. In the second half of the second century B.C. the city passed to the control of the Parthian Kingdom, and in 165 B.C. it came under Roman rule. In 256 A.D., Dura-Europos was destroyed by the troops of the Sassanids.

The city was of a regular plan during the Seleucid period, from which date an agora, the remains of temples, and a citadel. A palace and the ruins of numerous temples (Baal, Artemis Nanaia, Atargatis, Zeus Curiosus, Zeus Theos, Palmyrene Gods) with frescoes and reliefs have survived from the Parthian period. Remains from the Roman period include fortifications, thermae, a Christian church, a synagogue, and the temple of Mithras, the last three with unique wall paintings. Excavations were conducted from 1922 to 1937 intermittently by F. Cumont and M. I. Rostovtsev. In addition to the remains of architectural monuments, documents in Greek, Latin, Aramaic, and other languages have been found (Dura-Europos was a major trade center and had an ethnically mixed population).


Shishova, I. A. “Dura-Evropos—krepost’ Parfianskogo tsarstva.” Uch. zap. Leningradskogo universiteta, no. 192. Seriia istoricheskikh nauk, issue 21, 1956.
Rostovtzeff, M. Dura-Europos and Its Art. Oxford, 1938.
The Excavations at Dura-Europos. New Haven, 1929-59.
References in periodicals archive ?
Thejournalist added that visitors to the National Museum usually make a beeline to its two famous artifacts: a tablet from the ancient city of Ugarit inscribed with what is believed to be one of the world's first known alphabets and the ornate temple from the vanished desert town of Dura Europos, in addition to other masterpieces among them are the Mari wing, which includes a gypsum statue of the singer of the temple of Ur-Nanshe, with his curiously androgynous look, and a wing devoted to Islamic-era ceramics, metalwork and carvings.
Among the topics are Carian names and Crete, Lykophron's Alexandra and the Cypriote name Praxandros, a catalogue of officials of an association in a newly discovered inscription from Ptolemais in Cyrenaica, progress and problems revising Athenian Propertied Families, the onomastic evidence for Sparta's friends at Ephesos, onomastics and the administration of Italia, Greek personal names in Latin Dalmatia, new lead plaques with Greek inscriptions from East Crimea, an onomastic survey of the indigenous population of northwestern Asia Minor, an unnoticed Macedonian name from Dura Europos, and the personal name Kalandion as evidence for the diffusion of the Roman calendar in the Greco-Roman east.
Few people have heard of the magnificent ruins at Dura Europos, a Greco-Roman city dubbed the Pompeii of the desert, or Krak des Chevaliers, among the world's greatest Crusader castles.
In chapter eleven, Fine examines the art of the Dura Europos Synagogue and argues that its paintings must be interpreted within a liturgical context, something of which he believes can be reconstructed or projected from the albeit fragmentary Dura Europos Hebrew liturgical parchment.
This focus was even more evident in the Yale excavations at Dura Europos, whose social and economic bias reflected that of its director, Michael Rostovtzeff.
Other three-star sites like Apamea, Bosra, Krak des Chevaliers, Marqab, Palmyra, Sahyoun (since 1957 called Saladin castle by the Syrian government, though, as the author points out, he had nothing to do with its construction) and Saint Simeon are likewise given considerable coverage, as are two-star sites like Dura Europos, Ezraa, Husn Suleiman, Qalb Lozeh, Qanawat, Safita, Tartous and Ugarit.
Schubert studies both Jewish and Christian iconography, including the programmatic paintings of the Dura Europos Synagogue, the Via Latina Catacomb, and two manuscripts, the Vienna Genesis and the Ashburnham Pentateuch.
A Greek stone crown, the first of its kind in the region, was discovered by the Syrian-French mission operating in Dura Europos site, Director of Deir Ezzor Antiquities Department Amir al-Haiyou told SANA.
of Leicester, UK), whose PhD dissertation was on this material, has written a thorough account of the Roman and other arms and armor that were discovered at Dura Europos, a Roman site abandoned in the 3d century AD following a siege by the Sasanian Persians.
346-66), Paul Flesher uses computer enhanced imagery to demonstrate that there is little evidence for identifying David with Orpheus in the reredos of the synagogue at Dura Europos.
From Caerleon to Dura Europos on the Euphrates the stumps of Roman baths punctuate the landscape.
The exhibition of the Faculty of Fine Arts at American Yale University showcases whole scenes from the Christian church that were uncovered by the university's archeological mission at Dura Europos site.