a territory of the basin of the Severnaia Dvina (part of present-day Arkhangel’sk Oblast). Until the 15th century the Dvina Land was known as Zavoloch’e; it was situated to the north of the Volga-Severnaia Dvina watershed, the area called the volok (portage). From the 11th century to the 15th it was part of Novgorod. The inhabitants of the Dvina Land worked at agriculture, the fur trade, and fishing. Large-scale landowning (by the boyars. the church. and monasteries) made its appearance early here. In the 14th and 15th centuries Moscow and Novgorod carried on a protracted struggle for the Dvina Land. Finally it was annexed to the Grand Principality of Moscow in 1478.
REFERENCESBogoslovskii, M. M. Zemskoe samoupravlenie na russkom Severe νXVII v., vol. 1.Moscow, 1909.
Danilova, L. V.Ocherki po istorii zemlevladeniia i khoziaistva νNovgorodskoi zemle ν XIV-XV vv. Moscow, 1955.