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Difficult or labored breathing.



disruption of the rate and depth of respiration, accompanied by the sensation of shortness of breath.

Cardiac patients experience dyspnea both while physically exerting themselves and while subsequently resting in the horizontal position. Their condition is complicated by orthopnea, the inability to breathe except in a sitting position. In patients with cardiac diseases, attacks of severe dyspnea, which usually occur at night, are a symptom of cardiac asthma. In such cases, the dyspnea is inspiratory; that is, the patient finds it difficult to inhale. Expiratory dyspnea, difficulty in exhaling, arises when the lumina of the small bronchi and bronchioles are narrowed, as in bronchial asthma. It also arises when the elasticity of the lung tissue is lost, as in chronic emphysema of the lungs. Cerebral dyspnea is a result of direct irritation of the cerebral respiratory center by such abnormalities as tumors and hemorrhages.

References in periodicals archive ?
Patients often present with dypsnea and wheezing, which may be misdiagnosed as asthma.
The reported adverse events for THALOMID in the above clinical trials were constipation, sedation, deep vein thrombosis, peripheral neuropathy, edema, dypsnea, severe skin rash, infection and bone pain.
Natrecor is currently being used by hundreds of hospitals around the country to treat patients hospitalized with acute decompensated CHF with dypsnea (i.