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Difficult or labored breathing.



disruption of the rate and depth of respiration, accompanied by the sensation of shortness of breath.

Cardiac patients experience dyspnea both while physically exerting themselves and while subsequently resting in the horizontal position. Their condition is complicated by orthopnea, the inability to breathe except in a sitting position. In patients with cardiac diseases, attacks of severe dyspnea, which usually occur at night, are a symptom of cardiac asthma. In such cases, the dyspnea is inspiratory; that is, the patient finds it difficult to inhale. Expiratory dyspnea, difficulty in exhaling, arises when the lumina of the small bronchi and bronchioles are narrowed, as in bronchial asthma. It also arises when the elasticity of the lung tissue is lost, as in chronic emphysema of the lungs. Cerebral dyspnea is a result of direct irritation of the cerebral respiratory center by such abnormalities as tumors and hemorrhages.

References in periodicals archive ?
Several studies have shown that patients find dyspnea and other COPD symptoms most cumbersome in the early morning and at night-time.
The primary purpose of this study was to compare the effects of IS use with a placebo-control activity on perceived dyspnea in patients hospitalized with pneumonia.
Second group will get pulmonary rehabilitation in addition to their Pharmacological treatment (Standard of care treatment for COPD) and their dyspnea scoring and 6-minute walk distance are recorded at the start of study and after 8 weeks (end of study).
They were asked about their emergency department visits due to dyspnea, as well as the increases in amount and purulence of their sputum in the last year.
Recent research had shown that pulmonary rehabilitation benefits patients with COPD without regard to their level of baseline dyspnea, but the influence of the level of baseline exercise capacity on the benefits of pulmonary rehabilitation had not been systematically studied, wrote Mr.
The aims of this retrospective study were: (1) to introduce a fast and practical assessment system based on the degree of dyspnea and (2) to define the proper management according to the clinical severity.
Comfortable at rest, but less than ordinary activity causes fatigue, palpitation, or dyspnea.
Dyspnea is a common phenomenon during pregnancy and is a result of such physiological changes in pregnancy as edema, weight gain, dilutional anemia, and sex hormones-induced hyperventilation.
Keywords: Percutaneous Mitral valve Commissurotomy, Mitral Stenosis, NYHA Dyspnea Class, Pulmonary Hypertension.
We hypothesized that patients may reflect dyspnea differently depending on the context and/or the stress encountered to invoke dyspnea and that exercise training will reduce the sensation of dyspnea differently depending on the instrument used for assessment.
50%, and a significant increase in the number of patients was observed compared to the initial number and the number of patients with increased severity dyspnea after the treatment was completed.
However, research investigating its correlation with pulmonary involvement and dyspnea in scleroderma lung disease is limited.