a Kalmyk heroic epic glorifying the military exploits of Kalmyk legendary heroes and their leader Dzhangar, defenders of the fabled Bumba. The epic reflects the aspirations of the Kalmyk people and their many centuries of struggle for national existence. It was discovered as early as the 18th century that the Dzhangar was an epic popular among the Kalmyks. The first study and translation of the epic into Russian was made by A. A. Bobrovnikov in 1854. A cycle of songs grouped into ten chapters was transcribed from the words of Eelian Ovl, a famous dzhangarchi (a performer of the Dzhangar), and was published in 1910. A thorough study of the Dzhangar started during the Soviet period. In the fall of 1940 the Soviet public marked the 500th anniversary of the Dzhangar. The epic is also popular in the Mongolian People’s Republic. S. I. Lipkin made the best translation of the work into Russian.


Kalmytskii epos “Dzhangar” (V. Zakrutkin’s article “K istorii izucheniia ’Dzhangara’ “). Rostov-on-Don, 1940.
Dzhangar: Kalmytskii narodnyi epos. Translated by S. Lipkin. Moscow, 1958.
Dzhan“g”r. Moscow, 1960.


Kozin, S. A. Dzhangariada. Moscow-Leningrad, 1940.
O Dzhangare: Sb. materialov. … Elista, 1963.