Ethernet

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Ethernet

[′ē·thər‚net]
(computer science)
A protocol for interconnecting computers and peripheral devices in a local area network.

Ethernet

(networking)
A local area network first described by Metcalfe & Boggs of Xerox PARC in 1976. Specified by DEC, Intel and XEROX (DIX) as IEEE 802.3 and now recognised as the industry standard.

Data is broken into packets and each one is transmitted using the CSMA/CD algorithm until it arrives at the destination without colliding with any other packet. The first contention slot after a transmission is reserved for an acknowledge packet. A node is either transmitting or receiving at any instant. The bandwidth is about 10 Mbit/s. Disk-Ethernet-Disk transfer rate with TCP/IP is typically 30 kilobyte per second.

Version 2 specifies that collision detect of the transceiver must be activated during the inter-packet gap and that when transmission finishes, the differential transmit lines are driven to 0V (half step). It also specifies some network management functions such as reporting collisions, retries and deferrals.

Ethernet cables are classified as "XbaseY", e.g. 10base5, where X is the data rate in Mbps, "base" means "baseband" (as opposed to radio frequency) and Y is the category of cabling. The original cable was 10base5 ("full spec"), others are 10base2 ("thinnet") and 10baseT ("twisted pair") which is now (1998) very common. 100baseT ("Fast Ethernet") is also increasingly common.

Usenet newsgroup: news:comp.dcom.lans.ethernet.

http://wwwhost.ots.utexas.edu/ethernet/ethernet-home.html.

Ethernet

The standard network technology that connects computers to each other and to the Internet via cables. Defined as the 802.3 standard by the IEEE, the Ethernet access method is the global standard. Companies have hundreds and thousands of PCs wired together via Ethernet, and almost every reference to "local network," "LAN," and "network ready" is Ethernet. All new computers have it built in, and old machines can be retrofitted (see Ethernet adapter). See LAN.

Ethernet Is Wired - Wi-Fi Is Wireless
Wired Ethernet and wireless Wi-Fi exist together in virtually every home and office. Desktop computers may be wired, but phones and tablets need Wi-Fi, and a wireless router supports both. See Wi-Fi and wireless router.

10/100, 10/100/1000 and Gigabit Devices
A 10/100 Ethernet port transmits 10 and 100 Mbps, while the maximum speed of a 10/100/1000 "Gigabit" port is 1 Gbps. Ethernet uses the highest common speed between sending and receiving devices.

Ethernets above one gigabit are separate and do not mix with 10/100/1000 components. For example, there is no such thing as a single 10/100/1000/10000 port (see Gigabit Ethernet and 10 Gigabit Ethernet).

TCP/IP and Ethernet Are Global
TCP/IP prepares the data that Ethernet transmits. Together, they are the global local area network (LAN) standards. For details, see Ethernet and TCP/IP.

History
Invented by Robert Metcalfe and David Boggs at Xerox PARC in 1973, Ethernet first ran at just under 3 Mbps. Metcalfe joined Digital Equipment Corporation where he facilitated a joint venture with Intel and Xerox to collaborate further, and Ethernet Version 1 was finalized in 1980. In 1983, the IEEE approved the Ethernet 802.3 standard. See 100Base-T, Ethernet adapter, Ethernet switch and automotive Ethernet.

ETHERNET CABLE MAXIMUM LENGTHS  (From Device to Switch)

 TWISTED PAIR (Metal Wires)

    10Base-T        328 ft/100 m
   100Base-T        328 ft/100 m
  1000Base-T        328 ft/100 m

 OPTICAL FIBER
  MM=multimode fiber  SM=singlemode

  FOIRL MM             .6 mi/1 km
   10Base-FL MM       1.2 mi/2 km
  100Base-FX MM       1.2 mi/2 km
  100Base-FX SM         6 mi/10 km


Ethernet Uses a Star Topology
All computers connect to a central switch that lets each sender/receiver pair transmit at full speed (10, 100 or 1000 Mbps). Spare telephone wires are sometimes used, but often at lower speeds. For earlier topologies, see 10Base5 and 10Base2. See Ethernet switch, cable categories and twisted pair.







Ethernet Switch
This Omnitron switch has 16 10/100 ports and, like all Ethernet switches, automatically adjusts to the highest common speed between sender and receiver.







Ethernet Is Everywhere
Inside a home theater rack, this NETGEAR Ethernet switch communicates with the Omnitron switch (above) some 60 feet away. Here it connects to the Fire TV, Apple TV and Roku 3 streaming boxes, plus an Oppo Blu-ray player.
References in periodicals archive ?
7) The following abbreviations will be used: Tundra Nenets (TN), Forest Enets (FE), Nganasan (Ng), Tundra Enets (TE), Dolgan (Dg), Evenki (Evk) and Even (Ev).
The discussion here differs in some details as I do not see reasonably evidence for classifying the Tundra Nenets and Forest Enets verbs as "semantically not empty negative auxiliary" but as negative verbs due to their syntactic behavior.
11) See Hajdo1975 and Wagner-Nagy 2011 : chapter 8 for a cross-Samoyedic investigation; the discussion concerning Forest Enets in Wagner-Nagy 2011 differs in several major instances from mine (Siegl 2013 : 334ff; 2015a).
14) But not in Tundra Enets which poses problems for the assumed reconstruction of the Proto-Samoyedic tense system (Siegl 2014).
general movement would be much more productive in Nganasan than in Enets and Tundra Nenets.
21) Again, with the exception of Tundra Enets for which sufficient data is absent.
As already mentioned, the pronominal system of Tundra Enets differs from Forest Enets in that the pronoun stem for 2Sg is related to the reconstructed Proto-Samoyedic/Proto-Uralic stem, while the stem for 3P seems to be an innovation specific to Tundra Enets.
This then means, that the borrowed stems uu and bu followed the same morphological pattern as the inherited 1Sg Forest Enets pronoun mod' which for non-singular reference is accompanied by dual and plural Px.
23) As Forest Enets and Ket/Yugh pronouns for 2Sg and 3Sg are phonetically almost identical in the nominative and as Ket/Yugh pronouns in other cases have a slightly different form, it is safe to conclude that nominative forms were borrowed.
The second question concerns vowel length in Forest Enets 2Sg and 3Sg pronouns.
Whereas vowel length in Forest Enets is distinctive although its functional load is low, half long vowels are unknown and this might explain the vowel's realization as either short or long as no minimal pairs in this position are known.
With Forest Enets as a third attested language in Eurasia which has borrowed personal pronouns from another language, there are some other peculiarities which must be mentioned which make this language interesting for researchers outside Uralic as well.