This period was characterized by an especially prolonged solar minimum, which was deeper than the previous solar minimum: the EUV radiation
was extremely reduced from end 2007 to end 2009 and X-rays were practically absent (Sanchez-Cano et al.
The current technologies for generating high power EUV radiation
But the researchers found low levels of EUV radiation
only account for about 30 per cent of the collapse, while the increase in CO2 levels account for another 10 per cent at most.
The book begins with coverage of EUV source requirements and the status of the technology, followed by a review of atomic data and descriptions of theoretical models of discharge-production plasma (DPP)- and laser-produced plasma (LPP)-based EUV sources, DPP and LPP designs, and alternative technologies for producing EUV radiation
Normal incidence is set by retroreflecting a laser that is collinear with the EUV radiation
, which can determine normal to better than 0.
Since EUV radiation
is absorbed by all materials, the lithography process must be performed in a vacuum and use reflective optics.
Unfortunately the radio data suggested that a dense concentration of cool hydrogen filled essentially all of our galaxy, making the ISM extremely opaque to EUV radiation
Analysis oi data from ROSAT's wide-field camera has produced a catalog of 383 sources of EUV radiation
Finding a suitable source of EUV radiation
for the tool has been one of the major challenges; the source must be compact, bright, and free of contaminating debris.
To focus this light, the researchers avoid standard lenses, because they strongly absorb EUV radiation
This lamp generates a plasma in a patented gas discharge geometry (hollow cathode triggered Pinch plasma) and emits EUV radiation
in the spectral range of 9 to 20 nm in pulses of about 30 ns.
They have demonstrated that, by modifying JMAR's Britelight(TM) laser beam properties from those which are optimal to produce X-rays, and then directing that modified beam into a toaster-size chamber containing the licensed technology, they can convert the laser's energy into EUV radiation
at up to three times the rate of other laser plasma EUV generation sources reported to date.