Early, Jubal Anderson

Early, Jubal Anderson,

1816–94, Confederate general, b. Franklin co., Va., grad. West Point, 1837. After fighting against the Seminole in Florida he resigned from the army (1838), studied law, and practiced at Rocky Mount, Va. He fought briefly in the Mexican War. Early voted against secession in the Virginia convention (Apr., 1861), but when war broke out he became a colonel of Virginia troops. Promoted to brigadier general at the first battle of Bull RunBull Run,
small stream, NE Va., c.30 mi (50 km) SW of Washington, D.C. Two important battles of the Civil War were fought there: the first on July 21, 1861, and the second Aug. 29–30, 1862. Both battlefields are included in Manassas National Battlefield Park (est. 1940).
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 (July, 1861), he fought in all the campaigns (1862–64) of the Army of Northern Virginia. He was prominent at Salem Church (see Chancellorsville, battle ofChancellorsville, battle of,
May 2–4, 1863, in the American Civil War. Late in Apr., 1863, Joseph Hooker, commanding the Union Army of the Potomac, moved against Robert E.
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) and in the Gettysburg campaignGettysburg campaign,
June–July, 1863, series of decisive battles of the U.S. Civil War. The Road to Gettysburg

After his victory in the battle of Chancellorsville, Confederate general Robert E. Lee undertook a second invasion of the North.
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 (1863). In the Wilderness campaignWilderness campaign,
in the American Civil War, a series of engagements (May–June, 1864) fought in the Wilderness region of Virginia. Early in May, 1864, the Northern commander in chief, Grant, led the Army of the Potomac (118,000 strong) across the Rapidan River into the
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 (1864) he temporarily commanded A. P. Hill's corps, and when R. S. EwellEwell, Richard Stoddert,
1817–72, Confederate general, b. Georgetown, D.C., grad. West Point, 1840. Ewell rose rapidly in the Confederate army, becoming a major general by Oct., 1861. In 1862 he fought under T. J.
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 was forced to retire, Early assumed command of the 2d Corps. After Cold Harbor, Lee sent Early against Gen. David Hunter, who was threatening Lynchburg. Early drove Hunter westward and then marched down the Shenandoah valley, crossed the Potomac, and moved on Washington. He defeated Lew Wallace in the battle of MonocacyMonocacy
, river, c.60 mi (100 km) long, rising in S Pa., and flowing S across Md. to join the Potomac River near Frederick, Md. On its banks, just E of Frederick, the Civil War battle of Monocacy was fought on July 9, 1864. Although the Union forces under Gen.
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 (July 9, 1864) and was before the capital on July 11. The arrival of troops from Grant's army compelled him to withdraw to Virginia, but later in the month he again crossed the Potomac. His cavalry raided far and wide and burned Chambersburg, Pa., when that town refused to pay a ransom. In Sept., 1864, P. H. SheridanSheridan, Philip Henry,
1831–88, Union general in the American Civil War, b. Albany, N.Y. Although not a brilliant general, Sheridan's flair for leadership and his ready fighting ability made him the outstanding Union cavalry commander.
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 moved against Early and, defeating him at Winchester and Fisher's Hill, drove him up the valley. Early returned and surprised Sheridan's army at Cedar Creek (Oct. 19) but was finally defeated. On Mar. 2, 1865, his small force was overwhelmed by Gen. George Custer, of Sheridan's army, at Waynesboro. Lee, although still confident of Early's ability, was forced by public opinion to remove him. At the end of the war Early fled the country and did not return until 1869. He resumed the practice of law and was associated with Gen. P. G. T. Beauregard in the Louisiana lottery.

Bibliography

See his memoirs (1912; new ed. by F. E. Vandiver, 1960); biography by M. K. Bushong (1955); studies by F. E. Vandiver (1960) and E. J. Stackpole (1961).

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