Eastern Pact

Eastern Pact

 

a draft mutual-aid treaty, intended to bring the USSR and bourgeois Czechoslovakia, Poland, Finland, Latvia, and Lithuania together in opposition to Hitlerite aggression.

The idea of the Eastern Pact was advanced early in 1934 by the French minister of foreign affairs, L. Barthou, and was actively supported by the Soviet government. In May and June 1934 the USSR and France agreed to conclude a bilateral treaty providing for France’s guaranteeing of the Eastern Pact and the guaranteeing of the Locarno Treaties of 1925 by the Soviet Union. On June 14, 1934, the government of the USSR invited all interested states to participate in the Eastern Pact. Czechoslovakia (July 2), Latvia and Estonia (July 29), and Lithuania (August 3) declared their readiness to adhere to the pact. However, Estonia and Latvia made the adherence of Germany and Poland a condition of their own participation. The government of Finland avoided expressing its attitude toward the Eastern Pact. Barthou appealed to the British government in the name of the government of France, but the British, while formally approving the idea of the Eastern Pact, made their support conditional on Germany’s inclusion both in the regional mutual-aid treaty and in the Franco-Soviet treaty, so that Soviet and French guarantees would be extended to Germany. The governments of the USSR and France agreed to this. However, Hitler’s government (Sept. 11, 1934) and subsequently the government of Poland (Sept. 27, 1934) refused to participate in the Eastern Pact.

After the murder of Barthou by Hitlerite hirelings on Oct. 9, 1934, the elements that together with the British ruling circles virtually encouraged Hitlerite aggression achieved a preponderance in the government of France. The draft Eastern Pact was never implemented.

References in periodicals archive ?
The author of the Report pays special attention to the way in which the two regional organisations--the Little Entente and the Balkan Entente--are regarded by British politicians, who consider they "are being called on to play a progressively more significant role in the issue of maintaining peace" and "the Little Entente is meant to replace the States that overset the system of the Eastern pact designed by Messrs.
Soviet historians have claimed that the Eastern Pact project clearly demonstrated Moscow's peace-promoting policies and its wish to expose aggressors of fascist bent to the whole world.
In this article the following questions will be examined: first, the emergence of the idea of the Eastern Pact and the position taken by Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania with respect to this pact will be considered; second, since the Soviet membership in the League of Nations became a reality because of haggling around the Eastern Pact, Estonian's position in this matter will be of interest and therefore will be studied; third, the attempts of Germany and Poland to wield anti-pact pressure on the Baltic states will be investigated.
The plans for an Eastern Pact appeared on the political horizon of Europe in two stages.
The first stage of the proposed pact, started in 1925 by three outstanding diplomats from the Baltic region, advanced comprehensive designs for establishing an Eastern Pact, principally induced by the fears of Baltic people of the Soviet power in close neighborhood.
As the opposing forces succeeded in their endeavors, plans for establishing the Eastern Pact were shelved for the next seven years.
But now to the detailed examination of available facts, known events and moves, as well as countermoves carried out by individual participants in the political and diplomatic battles fought around the issues of the Eastern Pact.
The proposal for the establishment of the Eastern Pact emerged at the beginning of 1934 and was directly tied to Hitler's rise to power in 1933; the formation of Four Power Pact; Germany leaving the League of Nations; the failure of the Conference on Disarmament in Geneva; and finally the normalization of German-Polish relations.
8) In February 1934 the negotiations for concluding the Eastern Pact broke off because of the fall of Prime Minister Edouard Daladier's government.
He understood, first that the Eastern Pact was to provide an unifying link between the new eastern security system and the existing western security system based on the Locarno Treaty, and second, that the Soviet Union would guarantee the Baltic states and France in its turn the Soviet Union.
First, on June 1 Litvinov introduced general information about the planned Eastern Pact and the attitude of France toward it, to Foreign Ministers of Estonia and Lithuania and also to Julis Feldmanis, the Latvian representative to the League of Nations.
On the same day the Commissariat of Foreign Affairs ordered its envoys in Kaunas, Riga and Tallinn to inform the Baltic governments about the Eastern Pact and about the ongoing negotiations to bring it to life.

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