Eastern Pontic Mountains

Eastern Pontic Mountains

 

a system of mountain ranges in northern Turkey forming the eastern part of the Pontic Mountains. They extend parallel to the shore of the Black Sea, from the Melet River on the west to the Ço-ruh River on the East. The Eastern Pontic Mountains include the ranges (from west to east) Giresun, Gümüşane, Zigana, Trabzon, and the taller Rize Range, whose Kaçkar Dag is 3,931 m high. The system is about 400 km long and up to 100 km wide. The mountains were formed by alpine folding and are composed of crystalline, metamorphic, and volcanic rocks. The ranges have been carved by many rivers. On the northern slopes, where the annual precipitation is up to 3,000 mm, there are damp subtropical forests; above 400-500 m there are mixed and spruce forests. On the droughty southern slopes there are dry Mediterranean forests and shrubs. Above 2,000 m there are subalpine and alpine meadows.

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