1 is devoted to contextualizing Irenaeus's understanding of sonship and filial adoption in order to clarify the use of contemporary concepts against the Ebionites.
According to Orbe's reconstruction of Irenaeus's views, there are two reasons why he would raise the issue of the filial adoption of Jesus' humanity against the Ebionites in Adv.
Essays by other scholars deal with groups (the Jerusalem Church, Paul's Christ-believing Jewish opponents, And the Ebionites
and Nazarenes) and with texts (Q, Matthew, the Johannine writings, James, Revelation, the Didache, and the Pseudo-Clementines).
So Bonaventure used the Ebionites
in order to critique the simoniacal clergy who understood their ecclesial rights as their possession instead of seeing them in terms of service.
Miller offers new translations of the four New Testament gospels; the Gospels of Thomas, Judas, and Mary; the Q Gospel; the Mystical Gospel of Mark; the Infancy Gospels of James and Thomas; the Egerton Gospel; the Gospel Oxrhynchus; the Gospels of the Hebrews, the Ebionites
, and the Nazoreans.
24) The Ebionites
, according to Irenaeus, read only the Gospel of Matthew.
Sumney on Paul's opponents, and Petri Luomanen on the Ebionites and Nazarenes.
Ritschl's formulations reflecting the proportions of Jewish to Christian constituents in whatever mixture is labeled Jewish Christian survive in Hans Joachim Schoeps's descriptions of a group's or text's location within a spectrum ranging from "Great Church" Jewish Christians who accepted Paul to the Ebionites with their low Christology and demand for proselytization.
7] Some at least of the Ebionites
, a group of Jewish Christians influential in the early Palestinian church in the first and second centuries, thought that Matthew had misread Isaiah 7:14 (see below), and that Jesus was conceived naturally.
Matthew 19:24) Eusebius, a fourth century Christian historian, refers to an early Jewish-Christian sect known as the Ebionites
(literally, the poor ones in Hebrew), so-named because of their state of voluntary poverty.
In the definitive version of the Temptation, Flaubert has the Aged Ebionites
say that they have known "the Carpenter's Son
They include Basilides the Gnostic, the school of Valentinus, Tatian the Assyrian, the egalitarian and ecstatic new prophecy of Montanism, Ebionites
, Nazarenes, and the Jewish Christianity of the Pseudo-Clementines.