Ritschl's formulations reflecting the proportions of Jewish to Christian constituents in whatever mixture is labeled Jewish Christian survive in Hans Joachim Schoeps's descriptions of a group's or text's location within a spectrum ranging from "Great Church" Jewish Christians who accepted Paul to the Ebionites
with their low Christology and demand for proselytization.
Eusebius says this gospel was used by the Ebionites.
Farkasfalvy thinks the original reference of `the elders', who said `the Gospels with genealogies to have been written beforehand', was to the Marcionite version of Luke and/or the Ebionite version of Matthew, both of which had cut out the accounts of the ancestry, birth and infancy of Jesus.
33), Epiphanius does not make the Ebionites
call Paul a [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII].
I have usually assumed, for example, that one could trace a line from the early Jerusalem believers, through Paul's opponents in Galatia, to later Jewish Christianity as exemplified in the Ebionites
85-97), citing similarities in the baptismal practices of the Hemerobaptists, the Ebionites
, the Elchasaites, and the Mandaeans, notes a great deal of overlapping in Jewish and Christian understanding and practice, and concludes that this delayed the parting of the ways.
67) Bonaventure accused the early leaders of the Church, including Peter, of falling into the sin of legalism, which also spawned the first heresy of the Ebionites, who taught the Law was to be observed along with the Gospels.
So Bonaventure used the Ebionites in order to critique the simoniacal clergy who understood their ecclesial rights as their possession instead of seeing them in terms of service.
Each unit is studied in terms of its internal narrative form and structure, but also diachronically, in relation not to chronology and history, but to co-texts, principally of course Matthew, Luke, John, but also occasionally to the Acts of Pilate, Didache, Gospel of the Ebionites
, Gospel of Peter and Gospel of Thomas.
1 is devoted to contextualizing Irenaeus's understanding of sonship and filial adoption in order to clarify the use of contemporary concepts against the Ebionites.
According to Orbe's reconstruction of Irenaeus's views, there are two reasons why he would raise the issue of the filial adoption of Jesus' humanity against the Ebionites in Adv.
12) The variant occurs in the so-called `Western text," in the Gospel of the Ebionites, and in Justin, Clement of Alexandria, Methodius, Hilary, and in Latin manuscripts used by Augustine.