hemorrhagic fever

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hemorrhagic fever

(hĕm'ərăj`ĭk), any of a group of viral diseases characterized by sudden onset, muscle and joint pain, fever, bleeding, and shock from loss of blood. Bleeding occurs in the form of leakage from capillaries in the internal organs and the skin and mucous membranes. The causative viruses may be transmitted to humans by insects, ticks, or rodents, but in the case of the African hemorrhagic fevers, Ebola and Marburg, the animal carrier is unknown. In addition to Ebola and Marburg, well-known hemorrhagic fevers include hantavirushantavirus,
any of a genus (Hantavirus) of single-stranded RNA viruses that are carried by rodents and transmitted to humans when they inhale vapors from contaminated rodent urine, saliva, or feces. There are many strains of hantavirus.
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, Lassa feverLassa fever
, an acute viral disease occurring mostly in W Africa, characterized by high fever, muscle aches, mouth ulcers, and bleeding in the skin in more severe cases. The disease was first recognized in Lassa, Nigeria, in 1969.
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, yellow feveryellow fever,
acute infectious disease endemic in tropical Africa and many areas of South and Central America. Yellow fever is caused by a virus transmitted by the bite of the female Aedes aegypti mosquito, which breeds in stagnant water near human habitations.
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, and a severe form of dengue called dengue hemorrhagic fever (see dengue feverdengue fever
, acute infectious disease caused by four closely related viruses and transmitted by the bite of the female Aedes mosquito; it is also known as breakbone fever and bone-crusher disease.
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; see also Ebola virusEbola virus
, a member of a family (Filovidae) of RNA viruses that cause hemorrhagic fevers. The virus, named for the region in Congo (Kinshasa) where it was first identified in 1976, emerged from the rain forest, where it survives in as yet unconfirmed hosts, possibly
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).

Ebola and Marburg are closely related, newly emergent viruses that have in recent years caused epidemics in central Africa, with very high rates of mortality. Hantavirus occurs in many different parts of the world and is spread to humans from field rodents via microscopic bits of their excretions that get into the air and are inhaled. It was originally known as a disease of Asia and Europe that primarily attacked the kidneys, but a more deadly pulmonary form of hantavirus infection has more recently caused numerous fatalities in the United States, Chile, and other countries. Lassa fever, also spread to humans from rodent excretions, occurs primarily in W Africa. Closely related to the Lassa virus are the Junin and Machupo viruses, which have caused outbreaks of hemorrhagic fever in South America. Yellow fever, transmitted by the bite of a mosquito, still occurs in tropical areas despite largely successful control efforts. Dengue hemorrhagic fever, also spread by mosquitoes, has in recent years caused many fatalities among children in tropical countries.

There is usually no specific treatment to combat the viruses that cause hemorrhagic fevers. One exception is the drug ribavirin, which has been effective in treating Lassa fever and has also been used to treat a form of hantavirus infection and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever. Treatment generally consists of such supportive measures as the replacement of lost blood, the maintainence of fluid balance, and the alleviation of symptoms. Survival depends largely upon the virulence of the virus strain and the quality of treatment.

Bibliography

See R. Reston, The Hot Zone (1994).

References in periodicals archive ?
These findings could contribute to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of Ebola hemorrhagic fever.
Outbreak of Ebola hemorrhagic fever Uganda, August 2000-January 2001.
Ebola is a relatively rare but high profile virus that causes Ebola virus disease (EVD), previously called Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF).
The health ministry would like to inform the public opinion that Morocco is free of the Ebola hemorrhagic fever, of which 112 cases were reported in Guinea", the release said.
In 1976, Close, a surgeon, was personal physician to the president of Zaire and its army's chief doctor during the first epidemic of the newly discovered deadly Ebola hemorrhagic fever.
Ebola hemorrhagic fever is a severe, often-fatal disease in humans and nonhuman primates (monkeys, gorillas and chimpanzees) that has appeared sporadically since its initial recognition in 1976.
Equatorial Guinea has also received aid from the World Health Organization (WHO), which recently donated protective equipment for prevention of the Ebola hemorrhagic fever to the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare.
5 million to head the study against the virus, which leads to Ebola hemorrhagic fever.
A postmortem diagnosis indicated Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) caused by SEBOV as the cause of the patient's death.
14, 2014 /PRNewswire-USNewswire/ -- EcoHealth Alliance, a nonprofit organization focused on local conservation and global health issues, developed a series of global maps using available airline flight route data to calculate and predict the probable arrival of Ebola hemorrhagic fever virus from infected travelers in West Africa.
The Uganda Red Cross Society (URCS) has mobilised an emergency health team of 100 volunteers to support the Ministry of Health and partners to combat the deadly Ebola hemorrhagic fever in Kibaale district.
Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) is a severe disease caused by several species of Ebolavirus (EBOV), in the family Filoviridae.