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an experimental method of partly interfering with liver function. The operation was proposed in 1877 by the Russian surgeon N. V. Eck (Ekk) and was successfully used in 1892 by I. P. Pavlov. It involves the surgical connection of the vena cava inferior to the portal vein, which is simultaneously ligated above the point of connection. As a result, the blood bypasses the liver, flowing directly into the vena cava inferior. Eck’s fistula is a classical method of studying liver function. Various ways of improving and simplifying it have been suggested.