Ecological Niche

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Ecological Niche


the role of a species (more precisely, its population) in a biological community (biocenosis). The interaction of a given species (population) with other members of the community establishes its role in the cycle of matter, determined by food and competition ties in the biocenosis.

The term “ecological niche” was proposed by the American scientist J. Grinnell (1917). The interpretation of the ecological niche as the position of a species in the food chain of one or several biocenoses was proposed by the British ecologist C. Elton (1927). Such an interpretation makes it possible to assign a quantitative value to the ecological niche of each species or its individual populations. In order to accomplish this, a comparison is made, within a system of coordinates, between the abundance of a species (the number of individuals or the biomass) and an indicator of the temperature, humidity, or some other environmental factor. In this way, it is possible to establish the optimum zone and the limits tolerated by a species (the maximum and minimum for each factor or combination of factors).

As a rule, every species occupies a specific ecological niche, to which it has become adapted by the entire course of evolutionary development. The location that a species (population) occupies in space (spatial niche) is usually called the habitat.


Odum, E. Osnovy ekologii. Moscow, 1975. (Translated from English.)
Hutchinson, G. E. The Ecological Theater and the Evolutionary Play. New Haven, 1965. Pages 26–78.


References in periodicals archive ?
Rethinking receiver operating characteristic analysis applications in ecological niche modeling.
The potential distribution of Phlebotomus papatasi (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Libya based on ecological niche model.
2014: Ecological niche models in phylogeographic studies: applications, advances and precautions.
Existing Strategies of Urban Newspaper under Media Integration--From the Angle of Media Ecological Niche.
Coarse raster resolutions may fail to capture sharp environmental gradients that occur at terrestrial habitats, while ecological niche models built from low-resolution data sets tend to overestimate species ranges (SEO et al.
Ecological niche modeling in Maxent: the importance of model complexity and the performance of model selection criteria.
Table 3 summarizes the environmental conditions found in the areas predicted as suitable by the ecological niche models for all 7 variables.
In contrast, studies in marine or estuarine environments used only aquatic variables or both types of variables (4 papers) to generate ecological niche models of invasive species.
edu/~schapire/maxent/), a maximum entropy modeling algorithm, to produce ecological niche models.
METHODS: We performed ENM using the Genetic Algorithm for Rule-set Prediction (GARP) to predict the optimal and potential ecological niche areas of C.
Rats, on the other hand, do bite, do cause damage and do spread disease because they share our ecological niche.
These techniques are commonly referred to as ecological niche modeling or species distribution modeling.

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