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1. Economics the amount by which the stock of capital (plant, machinery, materials, etc.) in an enterprise or economy changes
2. Biology the outer layer or covering of an organ, part, or organism



the long-term placement of capital in industry, agriculture, transport, or other sectors of the domestic or a foreign economy for the purpose of deriving profits. In bourgeois economics, two kinds of investments are distinguished: financial investments and real investments.

A financial investment is the exchange of capital for stocks, bonds, and other securities issued by corporations or the state. A real investment is the placement of capital into productive fixed capital (buildings, installations, equipment), housing construction, and goods and material supplies in the country itself and abroad. Investments are realized by private corporations and the state. Private investments are directed into sectors of the national economy where the greatest profit can be derived (primarily, industry); state investments are directed into less profitable branches, for example, into the infrastructure (the underlying economic sectors of society, such as education, communications, and transport). Private investments are financed out of internal resources (depreciation deductions and retained profits) and out of other sources enlisted for this purpose: long-term credit and the issuance of securities. The financial sources of state investments are taxes, domestic and foreign loans, the income of state enterprises, and the issue of new money.

The financial operations involving investments are realized through banks (commercial and investment banks) and other financial agencies: savings banks, insurance companies, investment trusts, pension funds, and the like, which contribute to the accumulation of huge funds that belong to the population and that are used in the interests of the financial oligarchy.

The bourgeois economic experts foresee the limits of investments not in capitalist production relations but in technical production conditions and psychological factors. Although it is true that investments create income and expand markets, the antagonistic class relations of capitalist society ultimately restrict growth. The operation of the universal law of capital accumulation leads to a situation in which, because the investments are followed by a rise in the organic structure of capital, the wealth of the capitalists is growing whereas the conditions of life of the working class are deteriorating.


References in periodicals archive ?
visit Friday with a stop in Los Angeles, where he and Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa discussed tourism, trade and mutual economic investments.
As the first Chicago store in Wal-Mart's portfolio, the store is also the first Jobs and Opportunities Zone store to open that intends to work with local leaders and businesses to bring economic investment into a specific urban area.
The goal for this kind of project is for an economic investment,'' state Assemblyman George Runner, R-Lancaster, said during the ceremony.
Teitelbaum, chairman, president and chief executive officer, stated, "The Company believes that the current market price of its common stock represents an attractive economic investment and a appropriate use of its capital which is in the best interests of our Stockholders and the Company.
Lund continues the work begun by his predecessor Paula Gavin, leading an ambitious branch renewal process to strengthen the YMCA's position in New York's neighborhoods as vibrant centers of community life and catalysts for economic investment.
Technology investment in German local government is being driven by government initiatives, the need to encourage economic investment, improvements to citizen services, more efficiency across government, security and public safety, system and application upgrades and the political process.
Additionally, the contract has contributed to economic development in Pennsylvania by creating jobs and prompting economic investment.
The Company also closed a debt financing for equipment with the Hanford Area Economic Investment Development Authority (HAEIFC) of $1,400,000.
We are quickly evolving from a small environmental services company to becoming a major economic and political resource, using pro-active environmental policy, to stimulate local employment, entice direct foreign economic investment, and create cleaner, healthier living conditions for the citizens of Mexico.
The contract also has contributed to economic development in Pennsylvania by creating jobs and prompting economic investment.
The PC-GXT is the product of a targeted research and development program aimed at developing new generations of products which specifically meet the needs of the changing healthcare environment, where cost-conscious hospitals and physicians in office-practice are looking for expanded testing capabilities for an economic investment.