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1. Economics the amount by which the stock of capital (plant, machinery, materials, etc.) in an enterprise or economy changes
2. Biology the outer layer or covering of an organ, part, or organism



the long-term placement of capital in industry, agriculture, transport, or other sectors of the domestic or a foreign economy for the purpose of deriving profits. In bourgeois economics, two kinds of investments are distinguished: financial investments and real investments.

A financial investment is the exchange of capital for stocks, bonds, and other securities issued by corporations or the state. A real investment is the placement of capital into productive fixed capital (buildings, installations, equipment), housing construction, and goods and material supplies in the country itself and abroad. Investments are realized by private corporations and the state. Private investments are directed into sectors of the national economy where the greatest profit can be derived (primarily, industry); state investments are directed into less profitable branches, for example, into the infrastructure (the underlying economic sectors of society, such as education, communications, and transport). Private investments are financed out of internal resources (depreciation deductions and retained profits) and out of other sources enlisted for this purpose: long-term credit and the issuance of securities. The financial sources of state investments are taxes, domestic and foreign loans, the income of state enterprises, and the issue of new money.

The financial operations involving investments are realized through banks (commercial and investment banks) and other financial agencies: savings banks, insurance companies, investment trusts, pension funds, and the like, which contribute to the accumulation of huge funds that belong to the population and that are used in the interests of the financial oligarchy.

The bourgeois economic experts foresee the limits of investments not in capitalist production relations but in technical production conditions and psychological factors. Although it is true that investments create income and expand markets, the antagonistic class relations of capitalist society ultimately restrict growth. The operation of the universal law of capital accumulation leads to a situation in which, because the investments are followed by a rise in the organic structure of capital, the wealth of the capitalists is growing whereas the conditions of life of the working class are deteriorating.


References in periodicals archive ?
On the other hand, the City of London's historical short-term policies have led to a decrease in real economic investment and trapped us in a spiral of recession.
AaAaAaAa The meeting also discussed the importance of exchanging visits between officials and those concerned with economic and tourism sectors in the two countries to conduct studies and integrated working plans on economic investment as well as exchanging expertise and human resources between the two sides.
We are simply seeking to protect both the economic investment in our biosolids reuse program, our Green Acres Farm in Kern County, and the right of all citizens and municipalities to transport and use lawful products on their own property, wherever it may be,'' said Cynthia Ruiz, president of the Los Angeles Board of Public Works.
A website is a viable tool that will broaden CIDC's reach as well as attract economic investment and year-round tourism to Coney Island and its surrounding neighborhoods.
Goodwin produces motion control and sensing technology for a variety of industries and the move was supported by Wirral Direct, the council's economic investment team.
In a session entitled 'The City as a Stage: Urban Entertainment', planners, architects and historians explored how cities style and package themselves to attract human and economic investment.
The at-risk rules are designed to prevent a taxpayer from deducting losses in excess of his economic investment in an activity.
The Rendell Administration is committed to creating a first-rate public education system, protecting our most vulnerable citizens and continuing economic investment to support our communities and businesses.
Public Act 215 of 2005, Section 88k(2) allows the Strategic Economic Investment and Commercialization ("SEIC") Board to award grants and loans from the 21st Century Jobs Fund for".
But the Secretary of State told an audience at Queen's University in Belfast that US economic investment in the region was a win/win situation that brought benefits to both sides of the Atlantic.
Fox has been emphasizing the need for economic investment between Mexico and the United States to extend job opportunities and end the poverty in his country that drives so many people to come to the United States.
House of Representatives and endorsed by President Bush and a broad array of private-sector groups, will remove the threat of liability facing owners of contaminated properties and stimulate economic investment in brownfield cleanups.