in the USSR, higher educational institutions that train highly qualified economists and engineer-economists for various sectors of the national economy. Instruction is offered in many fields, such as the economics and planning of the national economy or of branches of industry, construction, transport, agriculture, or trade; the economics of labor and the planning of material and technical supply; computer processing of economic data; automatic control systems; economic cybernetics; merchandising and the organization of trade; the technology and organization of the food service industry; finances and credit; and accounting. The course of studies lasts from four to five years.
As of 1977–78, there were 36 economics institutes in the USSR with a four- or five-year course of instruction. They included 13 institutes of the national economy, 12 institutes of the economics of trade, four financial and economic institutes, two institutes of engineering economics (one in Leningrad and one in Kharkov), the Kuibyshev Planning Institute, the Moscow Finance Institute, the Moscow Institute of Economics and Statistics, the Saratov Institute of Economics, and the Sergo Ordzhonikidze Moscow Institute of Management, which was established in 1975 on the basis of the Sergo Ordzhonikidze Moscow Institute of Engineering Economics.
Most of the economics institutes have evening and correspondence divisions. Economists are also trained in the economics departments of universities and other higher educational institutions. (SeeECONOMICS EDUCATION; MOSCOW INSTITUTE OF THE NATIONAL ECONOMY; LENINGRAD INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING ECONOMICS; and LENINGRAD FINANCIAL AND ECONOMIC INSTITUTE.)