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Development of an embryo or of embryonic tissue outside the body in an artificial environment.



a trend in the theory of evolution according to which biological evolution is the result of environmental conditions, which bring about changes in organisms (the organisms themselves are only the passive material formed by these conditions). Adherents of ectogenesis argue that the environment, acting either directly or through the use or disuse of organs, causes adaptive changes that are later transmitted by heredity.

Ectogenesis is the opposite of autogenesis, which explains the evolution of organisms by the action of internal factors alone, for example, adaptive mutations or absolute expediency as the primary and immanent property of life. Neither ectogenesis nor autogenesis can account for all the observed phenomena of evolution, heredity, and variability. These mechanistic views are refuted by Darwinism, which affirms the dialectical unity of the external and internal factors of evolution. The British philosopher H. Spencer, the founder of mechano-Lamarckism, presented the most coherent exposition of the ideas of ectogenesis (seeNEO-LAMARCKISM).


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Most scientists whose research could lead to ectogenesis are focused on developing treatments either for infertility or for the complications of premature birth.
Even medically indicated ectogenesis would be available only to the relatively well-off, as is true today for expensive treatments for neonates and for infertility.
35) Others have gone so far as to posit that ectogenesis would be safer for the fetus as a general matter, regardless of the mother's condition.
is, here, quite direct: both look to Haldane's ectogenesis as a cornerstone for a new society.
In Julian's racist story, it is not ectogenesis that Hascome uses to manipulate the population but a eugenics program involved in breeding giants, dwarves, and obese virgins, based on the tissue-culture techniques popularized by the eugenicist surgeon and biologist Alexis Carrel.
22) Such a mythology, combined with ectogenesis, would lead to the marriage of the assembly line and reproductive technology.
Functional ectogenesis will require a reexamination of the status
This note will provide an overview of the concept of ectogenesis,
origins of ectogenesis in literature and examine the current state of
In spite of severe theoretical contradictions, Squier adds O'Brien into her own edifice, claiming that "it is from this core of anxiety over human reproductive asymmetry that the image of ectogenesis [reproduction outside the womb] speaks.
Certainly, the many genesis stories Squier tells - of eutelegenesis (artificial insemination), penectogenesis (an early term for IVF) and ectogenesis - tempt the feminist analyst to reach for generalizations, for a theory that grapples with "the deepest fears and wishes of our cultural unconscious: the fear of female procreative dominance, and the male wish to usurp and monopolize reproductive power.
The CNB unanimously recommended that practices of artificial reproduction inspired by racial prejudices be banned; that the practice of using gametes or embryos for artificial reproduction without the interested parties' consent be prohibited; that any commercial or industrial exploitation of gametes, embryos, or fetal tissues be banned, along with any form of compensation, brokerage, or advertisement; that embryo splitting, cloning, and ectogenesis with the object of procreation be forbidden; that the production of hybrids or chimeras and interspecific implantations be legally prohibited; that producing embryos solely for scientific purposes be forbidden.