Edmund Spenser


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Spenser, Edmund,

1552?–1599, English poet, b. London. He was the friend of men eminent in literature and at court, including Gabriel Harvey, Sir Philip Sidney, Sir Walter Raleigh, and Robert Sidney, earl of Leicester. After serving as secretary to the Bishop of Rochester, Spenser was appointed in 1580 secretary to Lord Grey, lord deputy of Ireland. Afterward Spenser lived in Ireland, holding minor civil offices and receiving the lands and castle of Kilcolman, Co. Cork. In 1589, under Raleigh's sponsorship, Spenser went to London, where he apparently sought court preferment and publication of the first three books of The Faerie Queene. After the Tyrone rebellion of 1598, in which Kilcolman Castle was burned, he returned to London, where he died in 1599. He is buried in Westminster Abbey. Recognized by his contemporaries as the foremost poet of his time, Spenser was not only a master of meter and language but a profound moral poet as well. Patterning his literary career after that of Vergil, Spenser first published 12 pastoral eclogues of The Shepheardes Calender (1579), which treat the shepherd as rustic priest and poet. His Complaints and Daphnaida, the latter an elegy on Douglas Howard, both appeared in 1591. In 1595 Colin Clouts Come Home Againe, a pastoral allegory dealing with Spenser's first London journey and the vices inherent in court life, and Astrophel, an elegy on Sir Philip Sidney, were published. In the same year Amoretti, Spenser's sonnet sequence commemorating his courtship of Elizabeth Boyle, and Epithalamion, a beautiful and complex wedding poem in honor of his marriage in 1594, were also published. Fowre Hymnes, which explains Spenser's Platonic and Christian views of love and beauty, and Prothalamion appeared in 1596. Also in 1596 the first six books of The Faerie Queene, Spenser's unfinished masterpiece, appeared. Although the poem is an epic, his method was to treat the moral virtues allegorically. The excellence of The Faerie Queene lies in the complexity and depth of Spenser's moral vision and in the Spenserian stanza (nine lines, eight of iambic pentameter followed by one of iambic hexameter, rhyming ababbcbcc), which Spenser invented for his masterpiece. Spenser's only extended prose work, A View of the Present State of Ireland, was first printed in 1633.

Bibliography

See variorum edition of his works (ed. by E. Greenlaw et al., 1932–49), the three-volume edition of the poetical works (J. C. Smith and E. de Selincourt, 1909–10), and the four-volume edition of the minor works (W. L. Renwick, 1928–34). See biographies by A. C. Judson (1945) and A. Hadfield (2012); studies by W. Nelson (1963), W. L. Renwick (1925, repr. 1965), D. Cheney (1966), P. Bayley (1971), A. L. DeNeef (1983), and H. Berger, Jr. (1988); C. S. Lewis, The Allegory of Love (1936, repr. 1958) and F. Kermode, Shakespeare, Spenser, Donne (1971).

Spenser, Edmund

 

Born circa 1552, in London; died there Jan. 13 or 16,1599. English poet.

Spenser studied at Cambridge University, where he received a master’s degree. His Shepherds’ Calendar (1579) is a pastoral consisting of 12 eclogues, each associated with a different month. Spenser drew on traditional allegory for purposes of satire in Colin Clout’s Come Home Again (1591; published 1595) and in the fable Mother Hubberd’s Tale (1591). He also wrote lyric hymns (1596) and the cycle of lyric sonnets Amoretti (1591–95).

Spenser’s greatest work is the unfinished allegorical narrative poem The Faerie Queene (1590–96), which is permeated by humanist aspirations. The work made use of the Arthurian legends and developed the traditions of the classical epic and of the narrative poems of the Italian Renaissance.

Spenser’s allegories deal with court life and politics. The characters in his magic world have the traits of living people; in its own way, his peotry is realistic. He contributed the Spenserian stanza to English versification.

WORKS

Works, vols. 1–8. Baltimore, Md., 1932–47.
In Russian translation:
In Khrestomatiia po zapadnoevropeiskoi literature: Epokha Vozrozhdeniia, 3rd ed. Compiled by B. I. Purishev. Moscow, 1947.

REFERENCES

Istoriia angliiskoi literatury, vol. 1, fasc. 1. Moscow-Leningrad, 1943.
Renwick, W. L. Edmund Spenser. London [1964].
Spenser: The Critical Heritage. Edited by R. M. Cummings. London [1971].
Atkinson, D. F. Edmund Spenser: A Bibliographical Supplement. New York, 1967.

M. A. NERSESOVA

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As his title implies, Cheney proposes that Marlowe's art is best understood as a response to the work of Marlowe's chosen classical literary forebear, Ovid, and his greatest contemporary rival, Edmund Spenser.
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As Edmund Spenser, Josuah Sylvester, Abraham Cowley, and John Milton fashioned their narrative poems, says Wheatley (Trinity College, Connecticut), each proved deeply responsive to the possibilities and challenges posed by a newly popular textual form--the historical epitome, or elegantly compressed versions of long histories.
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Hadfield singles out the drama of William Shakespeare and the poetry of Edmund Spenser for special consideration in his book, "both of whom were acutely aware of the British context of English literature" (9); but he also examines the writings of John Bale, Thomas Harriot, Michael Drayton, John Lyly, George Buchanan, Richard Beacon, and others.
If English poetry does not begin with Edmund Spenser, a case could be made that English literature does' (p.
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Anyone who had encountered rue in the garden would immediately recall its strong aroma, as Edmund Spenser and John Gerard both call it "rank smelling.