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(both: īdyo͞omē`ə), mountainous country, called also Mt. Seir. According to the Book of Genesis, it was given to EsauEsau
[Heb.,=hairy], in the Bible, son of Isaac, who sold his birthright to his younger twin, Jacob, for lentil stew and who was tricked by Jacob out of his father's blessing. Also known as Edom [Heb.,=ruddy], the disinherited Esau settled on Mt.
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, also called Edom, and his descendants. It extended along the eastern border of the Arabah valley, from the Dead Sea to Elat. Edomite history was marked by continuous hostility and warfare with Jews, Assyrians, and Syrians. At the end of the 2d cent. B.C., they were subdued by Hasmonaean priest-king John Hyrcanus I, forcibly circumcised, and merged with the Jews. HerodHerod,
dynasty reigning in Palestine at the time of Jesus. As a dynasty the Herods depended largely on the power of Rome. They are usually blamed for the state of virtual anarchy in Palestine at the beginning of the Christian era.

Antipater (fl. c.65 B.C.
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 the Great was Idumaean. The Romans grouped Idumaea with Judaea and Samaria in one procuratorship. After the destruction of Jerusalem, Idumaea was included in Arabia Petraea.



(Greek, Idumaea), an ancient country in Southwest Asia, south of Palestine, between the Dead Sea and the Gulf of Aqaba; named for the Edomites.

In the second half of the second millennium B.C., the land was settled by the Edomites, who united to form a state in the late second millennium B.C. In the 11th century B.C., Edom was subjugated by the tribes of Israel. It paid a tribute to Assyria from the ninth to seventh centuries and to the neo-Babylonian kingdom in the seventh and sixth centuries. Together with the Babylonians, the Edomites laid seige to Jerusalem in 586 B.C. and destroyed the city. By the late sixth century they governed part of southern Palestine.

When the Nabataean kingdom was formed in the late third century B.C., much of Edom was incorporated into it. With part of southern Palestine (capital, Hebron), western Edom became the independent kingdom of Idumaea. In the late second century B.C., Idumaea was conquered by a Judean king of the Hasmonean dynasty, and the population was converted to Judaism.

Together with Judea, Idumaea was subjugated by Rome in 63 B.C. and became a Roman protectorate. King Herod I was an Idumaean. In 106 A.D., a large part of Idumaea was incorporated into the Roman province of Arabia.

References in periodicals archive ?
In You Shall Not Abhor an Edomite for He is Your Brother: Edom and Seir in History and Tradition, ed.
GLAZIER-McDONALD, Beth, "Edom in the Prophetical Corpus", You Shall Not Abhor an Edomite for He is Your Brother.
Although the Bible doesn't comment on the destruction of the Israelite shrine in Moab, the chapter's use of Elisha and his miracles (without Elisha, the Israelite force would have died of thirst in the Edomite desert) comes as a reaffirmation of YHWH's power.
27) Robert Greer Cohn suggests the poem is also 'a comment on the birth pains of Herodiade', especially since Herodiade 'is a princess of Edomite (Idumean) ancestry': Toward the Poems of Mallarme (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1965), p.
Mariam's words here suggest that Salome, explicitly like her Edomite progenitors and implicitly like the biblical Eve, disgraces her heavenly birth through disobedience.
Hadad the Edomite made no idols until he went to Egypt.
or slightly later, a whole host of local languages, Hebrew, Ammonite, Moabite, Edomite, the unknown languages of the Lebanese, Syrian and south-eastern Turkish hinterland (some of which may in fact have been dialects of Aramaic, while others may not have been Semitic at all), and in many places possibly Phoenician(17) - not to mention the various dialects of Akkadian, too - had lost currency and were spoken, if at all, only by a small number of people.
When the guard refuses, Saul commands Doeg the Edomite to do the job - which he does with appalling thoroughness, wiping out not only the 85 priests, but the entire city and all therein (1 Sam.
As regards the Tabernacle of Nob, I propose that "destruction" refers to the cruel, unjust execution of the priests and inhabitants of Nob by Doeg the Edomite at King Saul's behest, after which the Tabernacle was forcibly uprooted and transplanted to Gibeon.
The Southern Transjordan Edomite Plateau and the Dead Sea Rift Valley: The Bronze Age to the Islamic Period (3800/3700 BC-AD 1917).
They observed that there are, for instance, passages referencing Moses in the third person and mentions of Edomite kings that lived after Moses died.
The last Hebrew word in the poem, "the rock" may be a reference to Petra, the Edomite city, called "the rock" in II Kings 14:7.