Edom

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Edom

(ē`dŏm),

Idumaea,

or

Idumea

(both: īdyo͞omē`ə), mountainous country, called also Mt. Seir. According to the Book of Genesis, it was given to EsauEsau
[Heb.,=hairy], in the Bible, son of Isaac, who sold his birthright to his younger twin, Jacob, for lentil stew and who was tricked by Jacob out of his father's blessing. Also known as Edom [Heb.,=ruddy], the disinherited Esau settled on Mt.
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, also called Edom, and his descendants. It extended along the eastern border of the Arabah valley, from the Dead Sea to Elat. Edomite history was marked by continuous hostility and warfare with Jews, Assyrians, and Syrians. At the end of the 2d cent. B.C., they were subdued by Hasmonaean priest-king John Hyrcanus I, forcibly circumcised, and merged with the Jews. HerodHerod,
dynasty reigning in Palestine at the time of Jesus. As a dynasty the Herods depended largely on the power of Rome. They are usually blamed for the state of virtual anarchy in Palestine at the beginning of the Christian era.

Antipater (fl. c.65 B.C.
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 the Great was Idumaean. The Romans grouped Idumaea with Judaea and Samaria in one procuratorship. After the destruction of Jerusalem, Idumaea was included in Arabia Petraea.

Edom

 

(Greek, Idumaea), an ancient country in Southwest Asia, south of Palestine, between the Dead Sea and the Gulf of Aqaba; named for the Edomites.

In the second half of the second millennium B.C., the land was settled by the Edomites, who united to form a state in the late second millennium B.C. In the 11th century B.C., Edom was subjugated by the tribes of Israel. It paid a tribute to Assyria from the ninth to seventh centuries and to the neo-Babylonian kingdom in the seventh and sixth centuries. Together with the Babylonians, the Edomites laid seige to Jerusalem in 586 B.C. and destroyed the city. By the late sixth century they governed part of southern Palestine.

When the Nabataean kingdom was formed in the late third century B.C., much of Edom was incorporated into it. With part of southern Palestine (capital, Hebron), western Edom became the independent kingdom of Idumaea. In the late second century B.C., Idumaea was conquered by a Judean king of the Hasmonean dynasty, and the population was converted to Judaism.

Together with Judea, Idumaea was subjugated by Rome in 63 B.C. and became a Roman protectorate. King Herod I was an Idumaean. In 106 A.D., a large part of Idumaea was incorporated into the Roman province of Arabia.

References in periodicals archive ?
These new data necessitate a re-examination of the role of the lowlands in the control of metal production during the rise of the Edomite kingdom.
One of the biggest difficulties in Edomite archaeology to date has been the limited amount of comparanda available, leading to a tendency to transform site-specific suggestions into normative features of Edomite culture.
In contrast to the Iron Age, the Persian period is represented by only a few sherds, collected from two random squares near the Edomite capital.
He assigned their construction to the tribe of Simeon, and later to the Amalekites or the Edomites (1979; 1983; 1988, respectively).
Quite a few cities in the southern Negev were founded in the seventh century, but these were Edomite.
Rolling commence a survey of the Phoenician language by placing it in the Canaanite group of Northwest Semitic languages with Ammonite, Edomite, Hebrew, and Moabite, distinct from Aramaic.
It might also be useful to peruse the Ammonite and Edomite epigraphic materials for more Egyptian words, though off-hand, none such come to mind.
Beit-Arieh, "An Edomite Shrine at Horvat Qitmit," EI 20 (1989): 145 [Hebrew]; Mazar, Archaeology of the Land of the Bible 10,000-586 B.
Amarna glosses], Phoenician, Punic, Moabite, Ammonite, Edomite, Hebrew, Deir Alla, Samalian, Old Aramaic, Official Aramaic, Nabatean, Palmyrene, Hatra, Jewish Aramaic.
The ancient archaeological city known for its rock-cut architecture is opened at night on specific days and is lit with candles all the way to Al Khazneh, the treasury, which is one of the most elaborate temples in the ancient Edomite city of Petra.
the promise to possess the land includes the offspring of Isaac, and the offspring of Isaac includes Esau, with his five Edomite sons and their offspring.
It was only under protection of that same Roman power that Edomite and Arabic clans around the neighborhood began to emerge little by little from the condition of continual wars and crude barbarism.