Effector


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effector

[ə′fek·tər]
(biochemistry)
Anactivator of an allosteric enzyme.
(control systems)
A motor, solenoid, or hydraulic piston that turns commands to a teleoperator into specific manipulatory actions.
(physiology)
A structure that is sensitive to a stimulus and causes an organism or part of an organism to react to the stimulus, either positively or negatively.

Effector

 

(1) The terminal link in the chain of neurons in the reflex arc. The effectors of the central nervous system transmit impulses to the peripheral organs and tissues.

(2) In animals and man, one of the effector organs by means of which the body responds to external and internal stimuli or engages in work activity. Depending on the nature and purpose of the response, effectors form dynamic systems that include various organs; for example, in the case of physical labor they include the muscles, blood vessels, heart, and endocrine glands. Chromatophores, luminescent organs, and electric organs are also included in the category of effectors.

Effector regulation takes place both on the organ level and on the level of cellular and subcellular formations; such regulation performs the function of triggering the beginning and cessation of work and has an adaptotrophic effect (intensiveness and qualitative characteristics of the effector reaction). The composition and interrelation of the effectors within a system depend on the degree of conditioning and reinforcement of the response and on the state of the effectors.

(3) In biochemistry, a metabolic product that by combining with an enzyme increases or diminishes its activity.

V. I. MEDVEDEV

References in periodicals archive ?
In such cases, the team's findings could be used to transform regulatory T cells into effector T cells to strengthen the immune system so it can better recognize and destroy cancer cells.
These results indicate that sustained mTOR activity is essential for CD8[sup]+ Tem differentiation, Type I effector functions, and serum sTREM-1 expression.
Caladrius' novel approach seeks to restore immune balance by augmenting the number and activity of a patient's own Tregs and using their innate capabilities to modulate multiple facets of the effector arm of the immune system.
In Figure 13, three offsets are applied for three different end effector orientations.
The possible bases and effectors are given in the basis--effector matrix of the bi-mobile linkage which is a symmetrical one with the elements of the principal diagonal equal to zero [5], so that A[i, j] = A[j, i] and A[i,i]= 0 where i is the basis and j is the effector.
iv) The target object contacts the end effector and hand cart.
The basis and the effector must satisfy the following theorems:
In the past, it was difficult to predict how the end effector would move when the winches wound and unwound the cable.
effector T cells, and Foxp3 levels between RA and control groups, age, and sex were determined using Mann-Whitney U-test via the program SPSS V.
The robot's end effector permits the soldering head and automatic solder feeder to be dynamically independent and adjustable.
In this study we examined both the direct and indirect effects of PRN exposure on CTL activation and effector cell function to gauge its likely impact on cell-mediated immunity.