Elburz(ĕlbo͝orz`), mountain range, N Iran, between the Caspian Sea and the central Iranian plateau; rises to 18,606 ft (5,671 m) at Mt. Damavand. The range consists of steep, narrow, parallel ridges crossed only by the Safid Rud, whose valley forms the main trans-Elburz route. The northern slopes of the Elburz are rainy and forested; the southern slope is semiarid. Snowcapped water peaks provide seasonal meltwater, which is used for irrigation and industry.
mountains in northern Iran, on the southern coast of the Caspian Sea. The Elburz lies adjacent to the Talish Mountains in the west and the Neyshabur Mountains in the east, forming the northern border of the Iran Plateau. The mountains extend approximately 900 km and consist of several parallel ranges. They vary in elevation from 2,000 m to 3,500 m and are composed mainly of limestones and sandstones. The volcano Demavend, rising 5,604 m, is Iran’s highest point. It is composed of andesitic lavas and is topped by glaciers.
The ravine of the Safid River cuts through the entire Elburz. The northern slopes, which receive 2,000 mm of precipitation a year, contain broad-leaved Hyrcanian forests that include oak, acacias, and hackberry, as well as mountain steppes and meadows. On the southern, drier slopes are thorny, xerophytic shrubs. There are deposits of coal and lead-zinc ore.