Elburz

Elburz

(ĕlbo͝orz`), mountain range, N Iran, between the Caspian Sea and the central Iranian plateau; rises to 18,606 ft (5,671 m) at Mt. Damavand. The range consists of steep, narrow, parallel ridges crossed only by the Safid Rud, whose valley forms the main trans-Elburz route. The northern slopes of the Elburz are rainy and forested; the southern slope is semiarid. Snowcapped water peaks provide seasonal meltwater, which is used for irrigation and industry.

Elburz

 

mountains in northern Iran, on the southern coast of the Caspian Sea. The Elburz lies adjacent to the Talish Mountains in the west and the Neyshabur Mountains in the east, forming the northern border of the Iran Plateau. The mountains extend approximately 900 km and consist of several parallel ranges. They vary in elevation from 2,000 m to 3,500 m and are composed mainly of limestones and sandstones. The volcano Demavend, rising 5,604 m, is Iran’s highest point. It is composed of andesitic lavas and is topped by glaciers.

The ravine of the Safid River cuts through the entire Elburz. The northern slopes, which receive 2,000 mm of precipitation a year, contain broad-leaved Hyrcanian forests that include oak, acacias, and hackberry, as well as mountain steppes and meadows. On the southern, drier slopes are thorny, xerophytic shrubs. There are deposits of coal and lead-zinc ore.

References in periodicals archive ?
According to legend, Count Henry of Champagne, returning in 1194 to the crusader kingdom of Out-remer from a military expedition to Armenia, stopped to visit the famous castle Alamut in the Elburz Mountains in what is now northwestern Iran.
Projects from Kolte Patil Kolte Patil IVY Estate Green Groves Kharadi Elburz Hills & Dales NIBM Road Tuscan Estate Kharadi Glitterati Pimple Nilakh Umang Primo Wagholi I Ven Hinjewadi
The southern and southwestern coasts of the sea are bordered by the Elburz and Caucasus Mountains, respectively.
It took a day or two to get used to the air, as Tehran is tucked into the slopes of the Elburz Mountains, and the smog from the multitude of small, boxy cars running on propane tends to sit heavily over the city.
The plateau is surrounded by even higher mountains, including the Zagros to the west and the Elburz to the north.
The Elburz Mountains south of the Caspian Sea in Iran's north have served as a similar barrier to external invasion, though, from time to time, a northern aggressor--the I(hazars from the mouth of the Volga in the 8th century CE and the Georgians under Queen Tamara in the 12th century, for example--has been able to effect at least a limited penetration.
The journey took us through the Elburz mountains, east to Mashhad, the Shia holy city, and on through Afghanistan.
However, and unlike tsarist Russia as perceived by Mackinder, it is also vulnerable from the sea; there is no glacis of mountains like the Hindu Kush, Elburz, and the Caucasus to protect it from invasion by the United States.
Iran, a 13-day trek through ancient castles and the Elburz Mountains and down to the Caspian Sea.
The most impressive of the 'long wall' systems is the Late Sasanian 'Alexander Wall' in Gurgan (northeast Iran), comprising a 10-m thick wall with a deep outer ditch up to 30 m across and at least 40 interval forts on the inside face, extending over 175 km from the Elburz mountains to the Caspian.
The highest peak is Mount Elburz (18,481 feet), which stands in the north-west, while Mount Kezbek (16,558 feet) flanks aChechnya and Ingush, the home of ethnically, religiously and linguistically the same people, though their homeland was split into two states by the Soviet Union.