embolism

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Related to Embolic event: Intracranial embolism

embolism

1. the occlusion of a blood vessel by an embolus
2. Botany the blocking of a xylem vessel by an air bubble
3. RC Church a prayer inserted in the canon of the Mass between the Lord's Prayer and the breaking of the bread
4. another name (not in technical use) for embolus

Embolism

 

disruption of the blood supply to an organ or tissue owing to blockage of a blood vessel by any type of particle transported by the blood or lymph stream but not normally circulating therein.

Circulatory disorders are aggravated by reflex vasospasms and secondary thrombosis. In the case of obstruction of small vessels, blood circulation can be quickly restored by collateral circulation, so that the embolism may be described as incomplete. Thromboembolism, which is caused by a thrombus or part of a thrombus that has broken free, is the type that is most important in practical terms. Emboli from peripheral veins usually lodge in the basin of the pulmonary artery. If there are defects in the septa of the heart, the emboli may reach the arterial system, bypassing the pulmonary circulation; this is called a paradoxical embolism. Embolism in the systemic circulation arteries is usually caused by the breaking away of thrombotic material from the left ventricular valves or walls, as in endocarditis, in heart diseases, and in aneurysm of the left ventricle.

Other possible types are tissue and fat embolisms (especially after extensive and severe injuries or fractures of the long tubular bones), air or gas embolisms (as in the case of open heart surgery, injuries to the large veins of the neck and chest, and decompression sickness), bacillary embolisms (obstruction by aggregations of microbes), and embolisms caused by foreign bodies—mainly by small fragments in gunshot wounds—which are sometimes moved by the force of gravity against the direction of the blood stream (retrograde, or venous, embolism).

Treatment includes the use of anticoagulants, thrombolytic and spasmolytic agents, antibiotics, therapeutic recompression (for decompression sickness), and surgical removal of the embolus (embolectomy).

REFERENCES

Chazov, E. I. Trombozy i embolii v klinike vnutrennikh boleznei. Moscow-Warsaw, 1966.
Tregubenko, A. I. Trombozy i embolii v khirurgii. Kiev, 1972.
Perlick, E. Antikoagulanten. Leipzig, 1964.

V. D. TOPOLIANSKII

embolism

[′em·bə‚liz·əm]
(medicine)
The blocking of a blood vessel by an embolus.
References in periodicals archive ?
Patients with persistent or permanent atrial fibrillation were 80% more likely to get warfarin, and those with a history of a stroke, transient ischemic attack, or embolic event were 59% more likely to get warfarin.
4,5) Furthermore embolic events can even occur in patients with acute AF for as little as 72 hours.
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More timely treatment decisions was particularly important in these patients; early notification of AT/AF and rapid ventricular response during AT/AF can be beneficial due to the numerous medical complications associated with each, including embolic events, inappropriate shocks, or worsening of heart failure.
3) As both thrombolytic therapy and embolectomy carry the risk of further embolic events, filter systems should also be considered.
8 /PRNewswire/ -- The Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) today published the findings of a study directed by Mount Sinai School of Medicine researchers which indicates that ximelagatran, a novel anti-clotting medication currently under development, prevents strokes and systemic embolic events in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF) as effectively as current treatment with warfarin.
Ruilope says that as per the investigators, "This oral anticoagulant prevents strokes and peripheral embolic events in patients with atrial fibrillation significantly better than that much older drug (warfarin) at different doses.
Prospective, randomized studies should test the hypothesis that closed-cell carotid stents and stents with small cell sizes provide better protection against embolic events.
Additional analyses in patient follow-up visits out to 36 months will measure major adverse events in patients such as death, surgical removal of the kidney, or embolic events resulting in kidney damage, as well as target lesion revascularization (TLR), a measure of the need to retreat a diseased vessel that has renarrowed.
Farr further stated that, "In an atrial fibrillation patient, with no prosthetic valves, prior embolic events, or thrombi, like Mrs.
Identification of potential sources of emboli in patients with cerebral ischemic events is important for the prevention of recurrent cerebral and systemic embolic events by means of appropriate medical treatment.