Endemics


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Related to Endemics: Endemic species

Endemics

 

species, genera, families, and other taxonomic units (systematic categories) of plants and animals whose range is limited to a relatively small region.

The range of some endemics is particularly limited. For example, the colubrid Oreotrochilus chimboraso is found only on Mount Chimborazo (South America) at an elevation of 4,000–5,000 m above sea level. The snail Limnaea convoluta occurs only in one small lake in Ireland. Among plants, the Sequoiadendron are found only on the slopes of the Sierra Nevada in California (USA); Pinus eldarica occupies an area of 25–50 sq km on the northern and northeastern slopes of Mount Eyliar-Bug in Soviet Georgia.

Areas that are isolated geographically or ecologically (deep lakes, mountains, islands) are rich in endemics. For example, endemics constitute 75 percent of the fauna of Lake Tanganyika (East Africa), 76 percent of the fauna of Lake Baikal, and 72 percent of the flora of New Zealand. On the Hawaiian Islands endemics constitute 82 percent of the plant species, all of the terrestrial mollusks (400 to 500 species), most beetle species, and almost all of the land-dwelling birds (55 species).

Endemics are divided into two groups—paleoendemics and neo-endemics. (See alsoCOSMOPOLITE, PALEOENDEMIC, and NEO-ENDEMIC.)

REFERENCES

Darlington, F. Zoogeografiia. Moscow, 1966. (Translated from English.)
Tolmachev, A. I. Vvedenie v geografiiu rastenii. Leningrad, 1974.
References in periodicals archive ?
More than half of the endemics (50 species) have a restricted insular distribution; 31 of them are confined to a single island grouping and 19 only occur on two island groupings (Table 1).
Three particular endemics, Encyclia androsiana, Lepidium filicaule, and Matelea correllii, provide good examples of species whose distribution ranges are unknown.
Endemics may have the potential to act as indicators of ecosystem status for rapid assessment purposes.
The slow-growing Catalina ironwood is the island's best-known endemic.
In all, 209 herbaceous species were found on serpentine in the five rounds of sampling, including 33 alien species (Table 1) and 29 serpentine endemics (Table 2).
Serpentine endemics showed similar regional diversity on patchy and continuous sites; local diversity was [TABULAR DATA FOR TABLE 4 OMITTED] substantially lower on small patches, and differentiation diversity was higher at both the total and within-cluster levels (Table 6).
Across all sites, the local diversities of endemics and aliens were weakly negatively correlated (r = -0.
Only three of the early branches of the family, Gochnatieae, Nassauvieae, and Mutisieae, have endemics in the region.
These low elevation areas were covered by the ocean approximately 125,000 years ago (Scott, 1997), and it is likely that many of the endemics from this region have a relatively recent origin.
Sunflower genera endemic to islands have provided outstanding examples of speciation through adaptive radiation (Adsersen, 1995; Givnish, 1998).
Admission is $3 at the botanical gardens, and after climbing the slope through a substantial region of cactuses and succulents, the footpath passes through the area of the Catalina endemics.
Meanwhile, the Catalina mahogany, right, is one of eight island endemics - plants found nowhere else in the world but here.