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(1) Teaching the details of a subject. With regard to software, training provides instruction for each command and function in an application. Contrast with education.

(2) In communications, the process by which two modems determine the correct protocols and transmission speeds to use.

(3) In voice recognition systems, the recording of the user's voice in order to provide samples and patterns for recognizing that voice.



in fruit growing and ornamental horticulture, imparting a certain shape to the crowns of trees. The crowns of fruit trees and shrubs are made light-permeable, sturdy, and compact to ensure high yields and convenience in managing, cultivation, and harvesting (by mechanized means). Crown shapes are classified as high-trunk (taller than 150 cm), average trunk (70–100 cm), low-trunk (50–60 cm), shrub (shorter than 40 cm), and trunkless (berry bushes and, sometimes, plum, cherry, and certain spreading forms). Depending on the arrangement of the branches, the crowns may be free-growing (improved-natural) or artificial.

Most common in fruit-growing is the free-growing crown, in the formation of which the natural growth of the tree or shrub is only slightly disrupted. Free-growing crowns include the whorled-layered crown whose principal skeletal branches are arranged in whorls of five in two or three layers, and the thinned-layered crown whose skeletal branches are arranged in layers of three, with solitary branches between them. Artificial crown shapes are used in topiary work and in ornamental horticulture. In beautifying city streets trees are usually trained to have a high trunk (up to 2 m) and a spherical crown. In parks trees are often trained in the form of geometric shapes, vases, and animals. Training is usually begun in plant nurseries and completed at the permanent planting site. The principal method of tree training is pruning.




References in periodicals archive ?
According to Dr Lindholm, the study is important above all for the fundamental understanding of how muscles operate and how we adapt to endurance training.
Based on the findings of these studies, it seems rather convincing that endurance training interferes with strength development.
The results showed the weekly sinusoidal loading of 8 weeks endurance training can positively affect the left ventricular catecholamine response to a lactate threshold test.
2] to intra-individual variation in endurance capacity especially after extensive endurance training (18,22).
Nevertheless, most studies seem to support the contention that the adaptation to typical resistance training is different when combined with endurance training.
The participant's of endurance training group underwent three exercise training sessions per week for 8weeks.
At the same time, overdoing endurance training may detract from muscle regeneration," he cautions.
From the lack of scientific support for altitude training and its uncertain results for endurance running efforts to early studies on endurance training and the health risks of running injuries, this is a solid reference highly recommended for any sports collection.
ENGLAND Athletics are holding a regional endurance training session at Maiden Castle, Durham on Saturday, October 19.
Your personal objectives and training goals will define what endurance training means to you.