The intertextual section ends with Atra-basis/Uta-napistim's offering to the gods, with the episode of the lapis lazuli necklace, and with Enlil granting immortality to Uta-napistim.
Certain sections of the excerpt borrowed into Gilgames were adapted and re-written to suit the new plot, because here Uta-napistim has to tell Gilgames how and why he had obtained immortality from Enlil right after the flood.
The first narrative is in the fifth tablet and evokes a passage from the astronomical series Enama Anu Enlil, as pointed out by Benno Landsberger and J.
This may have been the case because in Enfima elLf the gods Enlil and Ea (or Anu in one of the manuscripts) are also assigned a position in the universe four lines later (Ee V 8), (34) and, most importantly, because the second line of this tablet seems to be a quote from Enuma Anu Enid: (35)
As was the case with the borrowing from Enama Anu Enlil, the stories are similar but not identical, except for what I consider to be the use of subtle clues as indicators of the intertextual play.
Unger maintained, on very slender evidence, if any, that somewhere here was the location of the Enlil
Gate, and most plans of the city slavishly reproduce his idea.
In chapter I ("Quellen zur Chronologie des Zweistromlandes") the Assyrian king lists, eponym lists, and "Distanzangaben," the Babylonian king lists, the astronomical material contained in the omina series Enuma Anu Enlil, and dating based on textually attested month lengths are reviewed.
Pingree, Babylonian Planetary Omens I, Enuma Anu Enlil, Tablet 63: The Venus Tablet of Ammisaduqa (Malibu: Undena Publications, 1975) of the Venus observations has been based.
She investigates the extent to which this is a consequence of assumed divine authorship (chapter three), analyzes the notion of non-canonicity through the assumed twenty-ninth ahu tablet of the major divination compendium Enuma Anu Enlil
(chapter four), surveys continuity and change in the divination tradition and the notion of orality and authorship (chapter ten), and inspects Old Babylonian divination antecedents to help delimit a chronology for the early celestial omen tradition (chapter fifteen).
In this respect, the substitution specifically described and effected in Inana 's Descent is not so unusual, and is discussed above in the treatment of Enlil and Ninlil.
For an early suggestion that Enlil and Ninlil contains "the first known example of the metamorphosis of a god," see Samuel Noah Kramer, Sumerian Mythology: A Study of Spiritual and Literary Achievement in the Third Millennium B.
While Lugalbanda neither names any animals in his request nor undergoes any sort of visible physical metamorphosis, he is nonetheless transformed through his encounter with the terrifying hybrid: the latter, notably, is a boundary-crosser both in form (composite) and function (as a monster serving the cause of Enlil and of order), and so may be unusually well suited to help Lugalbanda transcend the limits of his humanity.