With these discoveries, we provide genetic evidence of at least four enteropneust species in Antarctic seas.
Notably, support for enteropneust monophyly is moderate (65/0.
The genetics and anatomical features of the Kara Sea enteropneust (described below) were sufficiently different from other known torquaratorids to justify naming it Coleodesmium kuraensis n.
Coleodesmium karaensis is the first enteropneust species (and indeed the first hemichordate) ever found to brood embryos externally on the maternal surface.
It is robust and can be collected intact, unlike many other species of enteropneust
, which are fragile and easily broken.
Recent experiments reveal that key developmental genes are expressed in the epithelia of differentiating gills of the ascidians and of the enteropneust
Ptychodera flava (Ogasawara et al.
at the Punta Morales sand mud flat particularly after the red tides of 1985 may indicate that other environmental factors were acting at this time.
Since their discovery in the 19th-century, some of the biggest questions in hemichordate evolution have focused on the group's origins and the relationship between its two main branches: the enteropneusts
and the pterobranchs, including graptolites.
- or acorn worms - are marine animals closely related to starfish and sea urchins.
Our colleague in California Nick Holland, the world authority on the Enteropneusts
, chose the name Yoda, for the new genus characterized by its large ear-like lips.
Light, was on the organization of the nervous system in enteropneusts
, a group of worms generally regarded as a sister group to the chordates.
The inferred phoronid-spiralian relationship implies convergence between the larval and adult feeding apparatuses of the phoronids (and other lophophorate phyla) and those of larval enteropneusts
and echinoderms (Halanych, 1996).