Eosinophil


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Related to Eosinophil: basophil, monocyte

eosinophil

[‚ē·ə′sin·ə‚fil]
(histology)
A granular leukocyte having cytoplasmic granules that stain with acid dyes and a nucleus with two lobes connected by a thin thread of chromatin.

Eosinophil

 

a cell of vertebrates, including man, whose cytoplasm contains rounded granular structures that are stained by acid dyes, in particular by eosin. The eosinophils of the blood originate and mature in the bone marrow. They comprise 3–4 percent of leukocytes in the peripheral blood of a healthy human being. This level is subject to a daily rhythm and is regulated by the system which includes the pituitary body and the adrenal cortex.

In allergic reactions, eosinophils release the inhibitor histamine, which belongs to the prostaglandins E1 and E2. They also serve as phagocytes.

An increase in the percentage of eosinophils in the peripheral blood or an increase in their absolute number is called eosinophilia. As a rule, this condition is reactive in character, regardless of the degree of its severity. The possibility of developing eosinophilic leukemia is still a matter of dispute. Eosinophilia is accompanied by various reactions and diseases, predominantly allergic, including those related to the breaking down of the body’s resistance by parasites or medicinal and food allergens. Aggregations of eosinophils observed in the tissues, as, for example, in the mucosa of the bronchi (and sputum) in bronchial asthma, are called tissue eosinophilia. Eosinophilic infiltrates, large aggregations of eosinophils in the tissues, are occasionally observed in various organs, predominantly the lungs. They may run their course as short-term reactions or result in such severe illnesses as pneumonia, myocarditis, vasculitis, and meningoencephalitis. A number of other diseases are also accompanied by a high eosinophilia. In some cases it is impossible to establish the nature of the disease that is accompanied by a high eosinophilia. The condition may be observed even in people who are otherwise healthy.

Hürtle cells, one of the types of cells of the anterior lobe of the pituitary body, are also called eosinophils.

L. D. GRINSHPUN

References in periodicals archive ?
TLC and eosinophil count was higher while monocyte count was lower in smokers (insignificantly low in light smokers).
Boyce JA, Friend D, Matsumoto R, Austen KE Owen WE Differentiation in vitro of hybrid eosinophil/basophil granulocytes: autocrine function of an eosinophil developmental intermediate.
A number of cytotoxic substances are then released, including highly cationic molecules such as eosinophil cationic protein, major basic protein, ribonuclease eosinophil-derived neurotoxin, oxidizing molecules such as eosinophil peroxidase and free oxygen radicals, and enzymes such as elastase and collagenase.
Both cytokines play an important role in the production, activation and survival of eosinophils in the bone marrow and peripheral blood, as well as the enhancement of cellular functions of eosinophils in peripheral circulation (6,7).
When eosinophil count was modelled as a continuous predictor, the risk of either unexpected re-admission or post-ICU mortality only increased significantly when the eosinophil counts were less than 0.
Total and eosinophil counts in lung lavage of sensitized animals were also reduced due to treatment of the extract and safranal.
Major Finding: Nearly two-thirds (64%) of the patients had a complete response, defined as a peak eosinophil count of 5 or fewer per high-powered field.
1996) studied the value of circulating eosinophil count and reported that circulating eosinophils (EOS) were higher in infected animals.
Response to steroid and hydroxychloroquine was good in our case but a low dose of prednisolone (10 mg) was needed to maintain an eosinophil count of less than 10%.
On the fifth day after removal, his serum eosinophil count was normalized and a follow-up chest X-ray showed no pleural effusion or pulmonary infiltration.
Since the variances of errors are not homogeneous, KruskalWallis test was performed to detect the differences of eosinophil cell counts and rates between four subgroups (two studies and two control groups).
The following investigations were done: blood studies, nasal discharge smear for eosinophil count, Mantoux test and chest X-ray in all children included in the study.

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