Epaminondas


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Epaminondas

(ĭpămĭnŏn`dəs), d. 362 B.C., Greek general of Thebes. He was a pupil of Lysias the Pythagorean, but his early life is otherwise obscure. As the Theban delegate to the peace conference of 371 B.C. he refused to surrender his claim to represent all Boeotia. Agesilaus II of Sparta therefore excluded Thebes from the peace. In the resulting war Epaminondas commanded the Boeotian troops. His thorough victory over the Spartans at Leuctra (371 B.C.) proved the effectiveness of his military innovations and earned him a reputation as one of the greatest tacticians of ancient times. Later he bolstered Boeotian power by building up Messenian independence from Sparta. In 367 B.C. he forced Alexander of Pherae to release the Theban general Pelopidas. In 362 B.C. he again commanded the Boeotians against the Spartans and was victorious at Mantinea, but he died in battle. His brilliant tactics in war were studied by both Philip II and Alexander the Great.

Epaminondas

 

Born circa 418 B.C. in Thebes; died 362 B.C. at Mantinea. Greek general and political figure.

Epaminondas came from an impoverished noble family. He received a good education under the Pythagorean philosopher Lysis of Tarentum and was an accomplished orator. In 379 B.C, together with Pelopidas, he led a democratic coup in Thebes against the Spartans.

During the Boeotian wars (378–362), in which the Boeotian League, headed by Thebes, and the Peloponnesian League, headed by Sparta, contended for hegemony in Greece, Epaminondas was repeatedly elected boeotarch (one of the seven chief magistrates of the Boeotian League) and commander in chief of the army. His victory at Leuctra in 371 and his three invasions of the Peloponnesus, in 370, 369, and 367, weakened Sparta and brought about the fall of the Peloponnesian League. The Theban fleet, which was was created by Epaminondas, conquered the islands of Chios and Rhodes and the city of Byzantium.

Epaminondas owed his military successes to his talent as a general and the good combat training of the Theban troops. Before Epaminondas, troops were deployed in a single line of heavily armed infantry, the phalanx, drawn up in an equal number of ranks over the whole front; the troops moved forward to engage a similarly deployed enemy force, the two fronts forming parallel lines. At the battle of Leuctra, Epaminondas faced superior enemy forces, and the large Spartan phalanx, in an attack involving parallel lines of troops, would have overwhelmed the Thebans. Epaminondas abandoned the equal deployment of forces along the front and concentrated his spearhead, an elite corps known as the Sacred Band, on the axis of the main strike. He achieved complete victory through a slanting attack, whereby the opposing forces approached one another at an acute angle.

In evaluating Epaminondas’ contribution to the development of tactics, F. Engels wrote, “Epaminondas was the first to discover the great tactical principle that to this day determines the outcome of nearly every decisive battle: troops should be unevenly distributed along the front in order to concentrate one’s forces in the decisive sector for the main strike” (K. Marx and F. Engels, Soch., 2nd ed., vol. 14, p. 355).

At the battle of Mantinea in 362, Epaminondas improved on his new tactic by closely coordinating the movements of the attacking column with those of the cavalry and light infantry; he was fatally wounded in the battle.

R. A. SAVUSHKIN

Epaminondas

?418--362 bc, Greek Theban statesman and general: defeated the Spartans at Leuctra (371) and Mantinea (362) and restored power in Greece to Thebes
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Since lost works are intrinsically mysterious, it is tempting to try to reconstruct Plutarch's Life of Epaminondas by examining its probable sources, compiling references to Epaminondas from some of the other Parallel Lives and from the Moralia (which may well have been compiled from statements elsewhere in Plutarch's works), and by analyzing other works that might be dependent upon Plutarch.
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Commencons par deux romans de Frederic Marcelin: Themistocle Epaminondas Labasterre, publie en 1901, et La vengeance de Mama qui parut en 1902.
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En esta batalla tambien fue capturado Adolfo Harker, procurador del gobierno conservador y que como tal habia asumido la presidencia del Estado, cedida a su vez por Leonardo Canal, quien al observar el avance de los liberales evadio la confrontacion y avanzo con sus fuerzas hacia el sur del pais; tambien fue capturado por tercera vez a Blas Hernandez, tercer designado a la presidencia; igualmente, a Benjamin e Idelfonso Hurtado, jefes de la rebelion en Charala; a Epaminondas Canal y Cristobal Garcia, calificados como "rebeldes consuetudinarios" en Soto; tambien a Vicente Ramirez, guerrillero de San Joaquin, entre otros.
Epaminondas Farmakis of Solidarity Now, a refugee charity funded by the billionaire investor George Soros, said: "Brussels wants to see group returns but Greece is looking at applications for asylum on a case-by-case basis.
I do not admire the excess of a virtue, like courage, unless I see at the same time an excess of the opposite virtue, as in Epaminondas, who possessed extreme courage and extreme kindness (Montaigne, The essays, iii.
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Sin embargo, en algun momento, la mayoria de las veces por comparacion, cita a personajes historicos de la Antiguedad: Augusto, Julio Cesar, Epaminondas, Cneo Escipion, Publio Cornelio Escipion, el tetrarca Filipo, Herodes Agripa, Herodes el Grande, Neron, el rey Salomon, Marco Aneo Seneca y Lucio Aneo Seneca, Sejano, Teodosio, Tiberio, Zenobia reina de Palmira .
Significativo e tambem que neste caso personagens de destaque na cidade estao presentes entre estes magistrados, como Epaminondas ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]) (1998, p.