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a congenital defect of the urethra, in which the anterior wall is totally or partially absent. Epispadias occurs more often in men than in women. The dorsal surface of the penis or clitoris has a groove that constitutes the posterior and lateral walls of the urethra. The three main types are balanic epispadias, which is limited to the glans penis; penile epispadias, which involves part of the body of the penis; and penopubic epispadias, in which the urethra is completely split and the urinary bladder sphincters are absent. Epispadias may cause spraying of the urine stream, impairment of sexual function, and urinary incontinence. The condition may be treated surgically by burying the rudimentary groove between the cavernous bodies of the penis and restoring the urinary bladder sphincters.