Epizoochory

Epizoochory

 

the transport of the seeds or fruits of plants on the surface of animal bodies (hairs, feathers, paws). In the course of plant evolution, the following adaptations have been developed to ensure epizoochory: mucus secreted by cells of the seed coat (flax, plantain, many crucifers), sticky glandular hairs on fruits (twinflower, nightshade), holdfasts and thorns on fruits (alfalfa, hound’s-tongue), calyxes (marigold, Labiatae), and lemmas (Tragus).

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Epizoochory is dispersal on the outside of animals.
2010), but direct, observational evidence for epizoochory of mucilaginous Salvia mericarps is lacking.
Epizoochory in dry forest Green iguana: an overlooked seed dispersal mechanism?
None of these studies, however, have considered the possibility of external passive seed transportation or epizoochory on lizards.
Furthermore, the specific role of large wild mammals, including wild boar Sus scrofa, bison Bison bonasus, deer and hare as dispersers of plant seeds, by both endozoochory and epizoochory, is increasingly recognised (Heinken et al.
Heliophytes either dispersed by endozoochory, epizoochory or wind dispersal will not persist as canopy closure occurs, unlike shade-tolerant perennial woodland specialists.
Van der Pijl (1969) further divided zoochory into two sub-syndromes: endozoochory (internal seed transportation) and epizoochory (external seed transportation).
Thus, Nee (1979, 1991) proposed epizoochory by birds as a dispersal mechanism for this species and for S.
Ants, birds, and mammals are the most important dispersal agents, and there are three main ways of dispersal: epizoochory, dyszoochory, and endozoochory.
In comparison to endozoochoxy, the external dispersal of seeds by animals via attachment to the body, epizoochory (cf.