Stimulus

equivalence classes are said to be established if performance have the properties of reflexivity, symmetry, and transitivity.

The main object in functions' algebra is the set of vector functions, divided into

equivalence classes, which form a lattice.

Ellis repeatedly notes that in these

equivalence classes some higher level features are essentially emergent, by which he means that they cannot be regarded as coarse-grained averaged outcomes of "blindly working lower level forces.

Note that the union of the four

equivalence classes equals the 16 points in Figure 3a and no point belongs to more than one equivalence class.

For the set of all

equivalence classes in the released anonymized table, a normalized formulation of the aggregate version of NCP, called the Global Certainty Penalty(GCP) is adopted.

Introducing key ideas and background for research in classical and virtual knot theory, Dye writes the proofs as simply as possible using combinatorial approaches,

equivalence classes, and linear algebra to make them accessible to upper-division undergraduate students.

Much of the earlier work for adaptive BDDC and FETI-DP iterative substructuring algorithms, which has been supported by theory, has been confined to developing primal constraints for

equivalence classes related to two subdomain boundaries such as those for the subdomain edges for problems defined on domains in the plane; see, in particular, the paper by Klawonn, Radtke, and Rheinbach [14].

This phenomenon has been studied on many occasions within the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, beginning with Sidman's discoveries in 1971 (see Garcia & Benjumea, 2001) and continuing with those of other authors within the framework of

equivalence classes.

Suppose the

equivalence classes with respect to the aforementioned equivalence relation are [E.

The main objective was to assess whether the formation of two sets of

equivalence classes could improve the problem solving performance.

dagger]] so that the longest common prefix of any two elements in the new partition is longer than the N value of the class, keeping all the elements in the new

equivalence classes consecutive in r.

Independence-based methods like the PC algorithm can discover causal structures only up to Markov

equivalence classes, that is some arrows remain undirected.