Erasistratus


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Erasistratus

(ĕrəsĭs`trətəs), fl. 3d cent. B.C., Greek physician, b. Chios. He was the leader of a school of medicine in Alexandria, and his works were influential until the 4th cent. A.D. He considered plethora (hyperemia) to be the primary cause of disease. As opposed to the then current belief in the humorshumor,
according to ancient theory, any of four bodily fluids that determined human health and temperament. Hippocrates postulated that an imbalance among the humors (blood, phlegm, yellow bile, and black bile) resulted in pain and disease, and that good health was achieved
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, he suggested that air carried from the lungs to the heart is converted into a vital spirit distributed by the arteries. He developed a reverse theory of circulation (veins to arteries). Studying from dissections, he observed the convolutions of the brain, named the trachea, and distinguished (as did his contemporary Herophilus) between motor and sensory nerves. He also devised a catheter and a calorimeter.

Erasistratus

 

Born circa 304 B.C. on the island of Chios; died circa 250 B.C. (according to some sources, 240 or 280 B.C.) in Alexandria or possibly on the island of Samos. Greek physician.

A student of Theophrastus’, Erasistratus became one of the two principal members of the Alexandrian school of medicine, the other being Herophilus. Erasistratus made a series of anatomical and physiological discoveries through vivisection and the dissection of corpses. He was particularly interested in the brain, in which he sought the source of all human activity. He described the dura mater, the pia mater, the external appearance of the cerebellum, and the nerve tracts proceeding from the brain; he distinguished between motor and sensory nerves. Erasistratus also described gastric peristalsis, the lacteal vessels of the mesentery, the epiglottis, and the trachea. He introduced the term “parenchyma” to designate the belly of a muscle and the soft part of certain internal organs. Erasistratus discovered the function of the cardiac and venous valves; he thought, however, that the veins contained blood and the arteries air. He is credited with introducing the term “artery” (literally, “carrying air”).

Erasistratus believed that intemperate eating and an excess of blood in the veins were the causes of disease; for this reason, the therapy he prescribed generally involved a dietary regimen, bloodletting, or the use of laxatives or emetics. He is said to have invented the catheter. Erasistratus’ works, which are no longer extant, are known from the works of Galen and Caelius Aurelianus.

REFERENCE

Kovner, S. G. Ocherki istorii meditsiny, fase. 3: Istoriia drevnei meditsiny. Kiev, 1888. Page 146.

B. D. PETROV

References in periodicals archive ?
The heyday of neuro-anatomy dawned when Herophilus and Erasistratus commenced human dissection (probably even vivisection) of condemned criminals, under patronage of the Ptolemaic pharaohs in the newly established city of Alexandria (332 BC).
He largely confirmed the work of Herophilus and most of that of Erasistratus.
Erasistratus taught that 'psychic pneuma', converted from ordinary pneuma in the meninges, was the vital force necessary for nervous function.
2) Erasistratus recognised apoplexy1 and, 800 years later, Caelius Aurelianus differentiated it from epilepsy, hysterical conditions, 'paralysis' and 'general lethargy'.
Yet, for a brief period, two scientist-physicians in Hellenistic Alexandria during the third century BC, Herophilus and Erasistratus, performed such dissections.
Among them were Archimedes, Euclid, Eratosthenes, Aristarchus, Conon and Ctesibius--as well as Herophilus and Erasistratus, two physicians who made an extraordinary contribution to anatomy and medicine.
Herophilus of Chalcedon was undoubtedly such a figure, as was his younger contemporary, Erasistratus.
The first medical theorists were hesitant about the ascription of causes for any particular diseases or afflictions--Diocles, Herophilus, and Erasistratus all questioned the causal connection when the illness could not be seen as ineluctably following from the purported cause.