Esfahan


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Esfahan

(ĕsfähän`) or

Isfahan

(ĭs`fəhän), anc. Aspadana, city (1991 pop. 1,127,030), capital of Esfahan prov., central Iran, on the Zayandeh River. The city is located on a high plain at the foot of the Zagros Mts., where the nearby peaks are c.1,400 ft (430 m) high. The Zayandeh River flows from the High Zagros to water an oasis, a large fertile plain c.20 mi (32 km) wide and 40 mi (64 km) long. An ancient and picturesque city, rich in history, Esfahan has long been known for its fine carpets, hand-printed textiles, and metalwork, chiefly silver filigree. It has modern textile and steel mills and oil refineries. A noteworthy city in Sassanid times, Esfahan passed to the Arabs in the mid-7th cent. and served as a provincial capital. In the 11th cent. it was captured by the Seljuk Turks, who made it (1051) the capital of their empire. In the early 13th cent. Esfahan was taken by the Mongols. Timur conquered the city in 1388 and, after its inhabitants rebelled, slaughtered c.70,000 persons in revenge; it is said that he built a large hill with the skulls of the dead. Under Shah Abbas I, who made (1598) Esfahan his capital, the city was embellished with many fine buildings—notably the beautiful imperial mosque, one of the masterpieces of world architecture; the lovely Lutfullah mosque; and a great royal palace. Shah Abbas founded the Julfa quarter, located across the Zayandeh River, by transferring Armenians from N Persia to that section. At its zenith, under the Safavid dynasty in the 17th cent., Esfahan had a population of c.600,000, making it one of the world's great cities of the time. However, the city declined rapidly after it was captured (1723) by the Afghans, who massacred most of its inhabitants. Russian troops occupied Esfahan in 1916. The city is the site of the Univ. of Esfahan. The name also appears as Ispahan.

Isfahan

, Eşfahan
a city in central Iran: the second largest city in the country; capital of Persia in the 11th century and from 1598 to 1722. Pop.: 1 547 000 (2005 est.)
References in periodicals archive ?
He said there were no safety concerns in Esfahan and promised that the local government would fight such "insane" actions.
Iran contracted with the Antonov company of the Ukraine to set up the factory at Esfahan.
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In Esfahan, last year's finalists Zob Ahan fought back from a goal down to a score a 2-1 victory over lEmirates Club at Foolad Shahr Stadium on Wednesday.
A source tells that the company wants to expand its operations at Rolling Mill 650 in the Esfahan province, in central Iran, to include 100,000 tonnes per year of rail products for the local market.
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The seven wonders featured are The Grand Mosque in Mecca; the Al-Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem; The Alhambra in Granada, Spain; The Blue Mosque in Istanbul, Turkey; The Great Mosque of Djenne in Mali; the Imam Mosque in Esfahan, Iran; and the Badshahi Mosque in Lahore, Pakistan.
Summary: At Palestine Square, opposite a mosque called Al-Aqsa, is a synagogue where Jews of Esfahan gather at dawn.
A new agreement signed between the United Arab Emirates General Civil Aviation Authority (GCAA) and the Civil Aviation Organisation of Islamic Republic of Iran (CAOIRI) has allowed for the operations of 43 additional weekly flights between Abu Dhabi and the five Iranian cities of Tehran, Shiraz, Mashhad, Esfahan and Kish.
Under the new agreement, Etihad Airways has been granted flying rights to operate 43 additional weekly flights between Abu Dhabi and the five Iranian cities of Tehran, Shiraz, Mashhad, Esfahan and Kish.